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%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% Filename: 	spec.tex
%%
%% Project:	Zip CPU -- a small, lightweight, RISC CPU soft core
%%
%% Purpose:	This LaTeX file contains all of the documentation/description
%%		currently provided with this Zip CPU soft core.  It supercedes
%%		any information about the instruction set or CPUs found
%%		elsewhere.  It's not nearly as interesting, though, as the PDF
%%		file it creates, so I'd recommend reading that before diving
%%		into this file.  You should be able to find the PDF file in
%%		the SVN distribution together with this PDF file and a copy of
%%		just type 'make' in the doc directory and it (should) build
%%		without a problem.
%%
%%
%% Creator:	Dan Gisselquist
%%		Gisselquist Technology, LLC
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%
%% Copyright (C) 2015, Gisselquist Technology, LLC
%%
%% This program is free software (firmware): you can redistribute it and/or
%% modify it under the terms of  the GNU General Public License as published
%% by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
%% your option) any later version.
%%
%% This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
%% ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTIBILITY or
%% FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
%% for more details.
%%
%% You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
%% with this program.  (It's in the $(ROOT)/doc directory, run make with no %% target there if the PDF file isn't present.) If not, see %% <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/> for a copy. %% %% License: GPL, v3, as defined and found on www.gnu.org, %% http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html %% %% %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% \documentclass{gqtekspec} \project{Zip CPU} \title{Specification} \author{Dan Gisselquist, Ph.D.} \email{dgisselq (at) opencores.org} \revision{Rev.~0.1} \begin{document} \pagestyle{gqtekspecplain} \titlepage \begin{license} Copyright (C) \theyear\today, Gisselquist Technology, LLC This project is free software (firmware): you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTIBILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see \hbox{<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>} for a copy. \end{license} \begin{revisionhistory} 0.1 & 8/17/2015 & Gisselquist & Incomplete First Draft \\\hline \end{revisionhistory} % Revision History % Table of Contents, named Contents \tableofcontents % \listoffigures \listoftables \begin{preface} Many people have asked me why I am building the Zip CPU. ARM processors are good and effective. Xilinx makes and markets Microblaze, Altera Nios, and both have better toolsets than the Zip CPU will ever have. OpenRISC is also available. Why build a new processor? The easiest, most obvious answer is the simple one: Because I can. There's more to it, though. There's a lot that I would like to do with a processor, and I want to be able to do it in a vendor independent fashion. I would like to be able to generate Verilog code that can run equivalently on both Xilinx and Altera chips, and that can be easily ported from one manufacturer's chipsets to another. Even more, before purchasing a chip or a board, I would like to know that my chip works. I would like to build a test bench to test components with, and Verilator is my chosen test bench. This forces me to use all Verilog, and it prevents me from using any proprietary cores. For this reason, Microblaze and Nios are out of the question. Why not OpenRISC? That's a hard question. The OpenRISC team has done some wonderful work on an amazing processor, and I'll have to admit that I am envious of what they've accomplished. I would like to port binutils to the Zip CPU, as I would like to port GCC and GDB. They are way ahead of me. The OpenRISC processor, however, is complex and hefty at about 4,500 LUTs. It has a lot of features of modern CPUs within it that ... well, let's just say it's not the little guy on the block. The Zip CPU is lighter weight, costing only about 2,000 LUTs with no peripherals, and 3,000 LUTs with some very basic peripherals. My final reason is that I'm building the Zip CPU as a learning experience. The Zip CPU has allowed me to learn a lot about how CPUs work on a very micro level. For the first time, I am beginning to understand many of the Computer Architecture lessons from years ago. To summarize: Because I can, because it is open source, because it is light weight, and as an exercise in learning. \end{preface} \chapter{Introduction} \pagenumbering{arabic} \setcounter{page}{1} The original goal of the ZIP CPU was to be a very simple CPU. You might think of it as a poor man's alternative to the OpenRISC architecture. For this reason, all instructions have been designed to be as simple as possible, and are all designed to be executed in one instruction cycle per instruction, barring pipeline stalls. Indeed, even the bus has been simplified to a constant 32-bit width, with no option for more or less. This has resulted in the choice to drop push and pop instructions, pre-increment and post-decrement addressing modes, and more. For those who like buzz words, the Zip CPU is: \begin{itemize} \item A 32-bit CPU: All registers are 32-bits, addresses are 32-bits, instructions are 32-bits wide, etc. \item A RISC CPU. There is no microcode for executing instructions. \item A Load/Store architecture. (Only load and store instructions can access memory.) \item Wishbone compliant. All peripherals are accessed just like memory across this bus. \item A Von-Neumann architecture. (The instructions and data share a common bus.) \item A pipelined architecture, having stages for {\bf Prefetch}, {\bf Decode}, {\bf Read-Operand}, the {\bf ALU/Memory} unit, and {\bf Write-back} \item Completely open source, licensed under the GPL.\footnote{Should you need a copy of the Zip CPU licensed under other terms, please contact me.} \end{itemize} Now, however, that I've worked on the Zip CPU for a while, it is not nearly as simple as I originally hoped. Worse, I've had to adjust to create capabilities that I was never expecting to need. These include: \begin{itemize} \item {\bf Extenal Debug:} Once placed upon an FPGA, some external means is still necessary to debug this CPU. That means that there needs to be an external register that can control the CPU: reset it, halt it, step it, and tell whether it is running or not. Another register is placed similar to this register, to allow the external controller to examine registers internal to the CPU. \item {\bf Internal Debug:} Being able to run a debugger from within a user process requires an ability to step a user process from within a debugger. It also requires a break instruction that can be substituted for any other instruction, and substituted back. The break is actually difficult: the break instruction cannot be allowed to execute. That way, upon a break, the debugger should be able to jump back into the user process to step the instruction that would've been at the break point initially, and then to replace the break after passing it. \item {\bf Prefetch Cache:} My original implementation had a very simple prefetch stage. Any time the PC changed the prefetch would go and fetch the new instruction. While this was perhaps this simplest approach, it cost roughly five clocks for every instruction. This was deemed unacceptable, as I wanted a CPU that could execute instructions in one cycle. I therefore have a prefetch cache that issues pipelined wishbone accesses to memory and then pushes instructions at the CPU. Sadly, this accounts for about 20\% of the logic in the entire CPU, or 15\% of the logic in the entire system. \item {\bf Operating System:} In order to support an operating system, interrupts and so forth, the CPU needs to support supervisor and user modes, as well as a means of switching between them. For example, the user needs a means of executing a system call. This is the purpose of the {\bf trap'} instruction. This instruction needs to place the CPU into supervisor mode (here equivalent to disabling interrupts), as well as handing it a parameter such as identifying which O/S function was called. My initial approach to building a trap instruction was to create an external peripheral which, when written to, would generate an interrupt and could return the last value written to it. This failed timing requirements, however: the CPU executed two instructions while waiting for the trap interrupt to take place. Since then, I've decided to keep the rest of the CC register for that purpose so that a write to the CC register, with the GIE bit cleared, could be used to execute a trap. Modern timesharing systems also depend upon a {\bf Timer} interrupt to handle task swapping. For the Zip CPU, this interrupt is handled external to the CPU as part of the CPU System, found in {\tt zipsystem.v}. The timer module itself is found in {\tt ziptimer.v}. \item {\bf Pipeline Stalls:} My original plan was to not support pipeline stalls at all, but rather to require the compiler to properly schedule instructions so that stalls would never be necessary. After trying to build such an architecture, I gave up, having learned some things: For example, in order to facilitate interrupt handling and debug stepping, the CPU needs to know what instructions have finished, and which have not. In other words, it needs to know where it can restart the pipeline from. Once restarted, it must act as though it had never stopped. This killed my idea of delayed branching, since what would be the appropriate program counter to restart at? The one the CPU was going to branch to, or the ones in the delay slots? So I switched to a model of discrete execution: Once an instruction enters into either the ALU or memory unit, the instruction is guaranteed to complete. If the logic recognizes a branch or a condition that would render the instruction entering into this stage possibly inappropriate (i.e. a conditional branch preceeding a store instruction for example), then the pipeline stalls for one cycle until the conditional branch completes. Then, if it generates a new PC address, the stages preceeding are all wiped clean. The discrete execution model allows such things as sleeping: if the CPU is put to "sleep", the ALU and memory stages stall and back up everything before them. Likewise, anything that has entered the ALU or memory stage when the CPU is placed to sleep continues to completion. To handle this logic, each pipeline stage has three control signals: a valid signal, a stall signal, and a clock enable signal. In general, a stage stalls if it's contents are valid and the next step is stalled. This allows the pipeline to fill any time a later stage stalls. \item {\bf Verilog Modules:} When examining how other processors worked here on open cores, many of them had one separate module per pipeline stage. While this appeared to me to be a fascinating and commendable idea, my own implementation didn't work out quite so nicely. As an example, the decode module produces a {\em lot} of control wires and registers. Creating a module out of this, with only the simplest of logic within it, seemed to be more a lesson in passing wires around, rather than encapsulating logic. Another example was the register writeback section. I would love this section to be a module in its own right, and many have made them such. However, other modules depend upon writeback results other than just what's placed in the register (i.e., the control wires). For these reasons, I didn't manage to fit this section into it's own module. The result is that the majority of the CPU code can be found in the {\tt zipcpu.v} file. \end{itemize} With that introduction out of the way, let's move on to the instruction set. \chapter{CPU Architecture}\label{chap:arch} The Zip CPU supports a set of two operand instructions, where the first operand (always a register) is the result. The only exception is the store instruction, where the first operand (always a register) is the source of the data to be stored. \section{Register Set} The Zip CPU supports two sets of sixteen 32-bit registers, a supervisor and a user set. The supervisor set is used in interrupt mode, whereas the user set is used otherwise. Of this register set, the Program Counter (PC) is register 15, whereas the status register (SR) or condition code register (CC) is register 14. By convention, the stack pointer will be register 13 and noted as (SP)--although the instruction set allows it to be anything. The CPU can access both register sets via move instructions from the supervisor state, whereas the user state can only access the user registers. The status register is special, and bears further mention. The lower 8 bits of the status register form a set of condition codes. Writes to other bits are preserved, and can be used as part of the trap architecture--examined by the O/S upon any interrupt, cleared before returning. Of the eight condition codes, the bottom four are the current flags: Zero (Z), Carry (C), Negative (N), and Overflow (V). The next bit is a clock enable (0 to enable) or sleep bit (1 to put the CPU to sleep). Setting this bit will cause the CPU to wait for an interrupt (if interrupts are enabled), or to completely halt (if interrupts are disabled). The sixth bit is a global interrupt enable bit (GIE). When this sixth bit is a '1' interrupts will be enabled, else disabled. When interrupts are disabled, the CPU will be in supervisor mode, otherwise it is in user mode. Thus, to execute a context switch, one only need enable or disable interrupts. (When an interrupt line goes high, interrupts will automatically be disabled, as the CPU goes and deals with its context switch.) The seventh bit is a step bit. This bit can be set from supervisor mode only. After setting this bit, should the supervisor mode process switch to user mode, it would then accomplish one instruction in user mode before returning to supervisor mode. Then, upon return to supervisor mode, this bit will be automatically cleared. This bit has no effect on the CPU while in supervisor mode. This functionality was added to enable a userspace debugger functionality on a user process, working through supervisor mode of course. The eighth bit is a break enable bit. This controls whether a break instruction will halt the processor for an external debuggerr (break enabled), or whether the break instruction will simply set the STEP bit and send the CPU into interrupt mode. This bit can only be set within supervisor mode. This functionality was added to enable an external debugger to set and manage breakpoints. The ninth bit is reserved for a floating point enable bit. When set, the arithmetic for the next instruction will be sent to a floating point unit. Such a unit may later be added as an extension to the Zip CPU. If the CPU does not support floating point instructions, this bit will never be set. The tenth bit is a trap bit. It is set whenever the user requests a soft interrupt, and cleared on any return to userspace command. This allows the supervisor, in supervisor mode, to determine whether it got to supervisor mode from a trap or from an external interrupt or both. The status register bits are shown below: \begin{table} \begin{center} \begin{tabular}{l|l} Bit & Meaning \\\hline 9 & Soft trap, set on a trap from user mode, cleared when returing to user mode\\\hline 8 & (Reserved for) Floating point enable \\\hline 7 & Halt on break, to support an external debugger \\\hline 6 & Step, single step the CPU in user mode\\\hline 5 & GIE, or Global Interrupt Enable \\\hline 4 & Sleep \\\hline 3 & V, or overflow bit.\\\hline 2 & N, or negative bit.\\\hline 1 & C, or carry bit.\\\hline 0 & Z, or zero bit. \\\hline \end{tabular} \end{center} \end{table} \section{Conditional Instructions} Most, although not quite all, instructions are conditionally executed. From the four condition code flags, eight conditions are defined. These are shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:conditions}. \begin{table} \begin{center} \begin{tabular}{l|l|l} Code & Mneumonic & Condition \\\hline 3'h0 & None & Always execute the instruction \\ 3'h1 & {\tt .Z} & Only execute when 'Z' is set \\ 3'h2 & {\tt .NE} & Only execute when 'Z' is not set \\ 3'h3 & {\tt .GE} & Greater than or equal ('N' not set, 'Z' irrelevant) \\ 3'h4 & {\tt .GT} & Greater than ('N' not set, 'Z' not set) \\ 3'h5 & {\tt .LT} & Less than ('N' not set) \\ 3'h6 & {\tt .C} & Carry set\\ 3'h7 & {\tt .V} & Overflow set\\ \end{tabular} \caption{Conditions for conditional operand execution}\label{tbl:conditions} \end{center} \end{table} There is no condition code for less than or equal, not C or not V. Using these conditions will take an extra instruction. (Ex: \hbox{\tt TST \$4,CC;} \hbox{\tt STO.NZ R0,(R1)})

\section{Operand B}
Many instruction forms have a 21-bit source "Operand B" associated with them.
This Operand B is either equal to a register plus a signed immediate offset,
or an immediate offset by itself.  This value is encoded as shown in
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:opb}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|}\hline
Bit 20 & 19 \ldots 16 & 15 \ldots 0 \\\hline
1'b0 & \multicolumn{2}{l|}{Signed Immediate value} \\\hline
1'b1 & 4-bit Register & 16-bit Signed immediate offset \\\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{Bit allocation for Operand B}\label{tbl:opb}
\end{center}\end{table}
The ZIP CPU supports two addressing modes: register plus immediate, and
Operand B's, shown above.

A lot of long hard thought was put into whether to allow pre/post increment
and decrement addressing modes.  Finding no way to use these operators without
taking two or more clocks per instruction, these addressing modes have been
removed from the realm of possibilities.  This means that the Zip CPU has no
native way of executing push, pop, return, or jump to subroutine operations.

\section{Move Operands}
The previous set of operands would be perfect and complete, save only that
mode.  Therefore, the MOV instruction is special and offers access
to these registers ... when in supervisory mode.  To keep the compiler
simple, the extra bits are ignored in non-supervisory mode (as though
they didn't exist), rather than being mapped to new instructions or
additional capabilities.  The bits indicating which register set each
register lies within are the A-Usr and B-Usr bits.  When set to a one,
these refer to a user mode register.  When set to a zero, these refer
to a register in the current mode, whether user or supervisor.
Further, because
a load immediate instruction exists, there is no move capability between
an immediate and a register: all moves come from either a register or
a register plus an offset.

This actually leads to a bit of a problem: since the MOV instruction
encodes which register set each register is coming from or moving to,
how shall a compiler or assembler know how to compile a MOV instruction
without knowing the mode of the CPU at the time?  For this reason,
the compiler will assume all MOV registers are supervisor registers,
and display them as normal.  Anything with the user bit set will
be treated as a user register.  The CPU will quietly ignore the
supervisor bits while in user mode, and anything marked as a user
register will always be valid.

\section{Multiply Operations}
While the Zip CPU instruction set supports multiply operations, they are not
yet fully supported by the CPU.  Two Multiply operations are supported, a
16x16 bit signed multiply (MPYS) and the same but unsigned (MPYU).  In both
cases, the operand is a register plus a 16-bit immediate, subject to the
rule that the register cannot be the PC or CC registers.  The PC register
field has been stolen to create a multiply by immediate instruction.  The
CC register field is reserved.

\section{Floating Point}
The ZIP CPU does not support floating point operations today.  However, the
instruction set reserves a capability for a floating point operation.  To
execute such an operation, simply set the floating point bit in the CC
register and the following instruction will interpret its registers as
a floating point instruction.  Not all instructions, however, have floating
point equivalents.  Further, the immediate fields do not apply in floating
point mode, and must be set to zero.  Not all instructions make sense as
floating point operations.  Therefore, only the CMP, SUB, ADD, and MPY
instructions may be issued as floating point instructions.  Other instructions
allow the examining of the floating point bit in the CC register.  In all
cases, the floating point bit is cleared one instruction after it is set.

The architecture does not support a floating point not-implemented interrupt.
Any soft floating point emulation must be done deliberately.

\section{Native Instructions}
The instruction set for the Zip CPU is summarized in
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:zip-instructions}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|c|}\hline
Op Code & \multicolumn{8}{c|}{31\ldots24} & \multicolumn{8}{c|}{23\ldots 16}
& \multicolumn{8}{c|}{15\ldots 8} & \multicolumn{8}{c|}{7\ldots 0}
& Sets CC? \\\hline
CMP(Sub) & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h0}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
& Yes \\\hline
BTST(And) & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h1}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
& Yes \\\hline
MOV & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h2}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& A-Usr
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{B-Reg}
& B-Usr
& \multicolumn{15}{l|}{15'bit signed offset}
& \\\hline
LODI & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h3}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'bit Signed Immediate}
& \\\hline
NOOP & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
& \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'h00}
& \\\hline
BREAK & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
& \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'h01}
& \\\hline
{\em Rsrd} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
& \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'bits, but not 0 or 1.}
& \\\hline
LODIHI & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b1
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Immediate}
& \\\hline
LODILO & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b0
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Immediate}
& \\\hline
16-b MPYU & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b0 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{Reg}
& \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
& Yes \\\hline
16-b MPYU(I) & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b0 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
& \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
& Yes \\\hline
16-b MPYS & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b1 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{Reg}
& \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
& Yes \\\hline
16-b MPYS(I) & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b1 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
& \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
& Yes \\\hline
ROL & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h5}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, truncated to low order 5 bits}
& \\\hline
LOD & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h6}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& \\\hline
STO & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h7}
& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
& \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& \\\hline
{\em Rsrd} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h8}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b0
&	\multicolumn{20}{l|}{Reserved}
& Yes \\\hline
SUB & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h8}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
& 1'b1
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{Reg}
&	\multicolumn{16}{l|}{16'bit signed offset}
& Yes \\\hline
AND & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h9}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
&	\multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
& Yes \\\hline
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
&	\multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
& Yes \\\hline
OR & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hb}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
&	\multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
& Yes \\\hline
XOR & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hc}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
&	\multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
& Yes \\\hline
LSL/ASL & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hd}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
&	\multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, imm. trucated to 6 bits}
& Yes \\\hline
ASR & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
&	\multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, imm. trucated to 6 bits}
& Yes \\\hline
LSR & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
&	\multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
&	\multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
&	\multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, imm. trucated to 6 bits}
& Yes \\\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{Zip CPU Instruction Set}\label{tbl:zip-instructions}
\end{center}\end{table}

As you can see, there's lots of room for instruction set expansion.  The
NOOP and BREAK instructions leave 24~bits of open instruction address
space, minus the two instructions NOOP and BREAK.  The Subtract leaves half
of its space open, since a subtract immediate is the same as an add with a
negated immediate.

\section{Derived Instructions}
The ZIP CPU supports many other common instructions, but not all of them
are single instructions.  The derived instruction tables,
Tbls.~\ref{tbl:derived-1}, \ref{tbl:derived-2}, and~\ref{tbl:derived-3},
help to capture some of how these other instructions may be implemented on
the ZIP CPU.  Many of these instructions will have assembly equivalents,
such as the branch instructions, to facilitate working with the CPU.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
Mapped & Actual  & Notes \\\hline
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{Add Ra,Rx\\ADD.C \$1,Ry\\Add Rb,Ry} & Add with carry \\\hline BRA.Cond +/-\$Addr
& Mov.cond \$Addr+PC,PC & Branch or jump on condition. Works for 14 bit address offsets.\\\hline BRA.Cond +/-\$Addr
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{LDI \$Addr,Rx \\ ADD.cond Rx,PC} & Branch/jump on condition. Works for 23 bit address offsets, but costs a register, an extra instruction, and setsthe flags. \\\hline BNC PC+\$Addr
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{Test \$Carry,CC \\ MOV.Z PC+\$Addr,PC}
& Example of a branch on an unsupported
condition, in this case a branch on not carry \\\hline
BUSY & MOV \$-1(PC),PC & Execute an infinite loop \\\hline CLRF.NZ Rx & XOR.NZ Rx,Rx & Clear Rx, and flags, if the Z-bit is not set \\\hline CLR Rx & LDI \$0,Rx
& Clears Rx, leaves flags untouched.  This instruction cannot be
conditional. \\\hline
EXCH.W Rx
& ROL \$16,Rx & Exchanges the top and bottom 16'bit words of Rx \\\hline HALT & Or \$SLEEP,CC
& Executed while in interrupt mode.  In user mode this is simply a
wait until interrupt instructioon. \\\hline
INT & LDI \$0,CC & Since we're using the CC register as a trap vector as well, this executes TRAP \#0. \\\hline IRET & OR \$GIE,CC
JMP R6+\$Addr & MOV \$Addr(R6),PC
& \\\hline
JSR PC+\$Addr & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{SUB \$1,SP \\\
MOV \$3+PC,R0 \\ STO R0,1(SP) \\ MOV \$Addr+PC,PC \\
ADD \$1,SP} & Jump to Subroutine. \\\hline JSR PC+\$Addr
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{MOV \$3+PC,R12 \\ MOV \$addr+PC,PC}
&This is the high speed
version of a subroutine call, necessitating a register to hold the
last PC address.  In its favor, this method doesn't suffer the
mandatory memory access of the other approach. \\\hline
LDI.l \$val,Rx & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{LDIHI (\$val$>>$16)\&0x0ffff, Rx \\
LDILO (\$val \& 0x0ffff)} & Sadly, there's not enough instruction space to load a complete immediate value into any register. Therefore, fully loading any register takes two cycles. The LDIHI (load immediate high) and LDILO (load immediate low) instructions have been created to facilitate this. \\\hline \end{tabular} \caption{Derived Instructions}\label{tbl:derived-1} \end{center}\end{table} \begin{table}\begin{center} \begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline Mapped & Actual & Notes \\\hline LOD.b \$addr,Rx
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{%
LDI	\$addr,Ra \\ LDI \$addr,Rb \\
LSR	\$2,Ra \\ AND \$3,Rb \\
LOD	(Ra),Rx \\
LSL	\$3,Rb \\ SUB \$32,Rb \\
ROL	Rb,Rx \\
AND \$0ffh,Rx} & \parbox[t]{3in}{This CPU is designed for 32'bit word length instructions. Byte addressing is not supported by the CPU or the bus, so it therefore takes more work to do. Note also that in this example, \$Addr is a byte-wise address, where
we needed to drop the bottom two bits.  This also limits the address
space of character accesses using this method from 16 MB down to 4MB.}
\\\hline
\parbox[t]{1.5in}{LSL \$1,Rx\\ LSLC \$1,Ry}
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{LSL \$1,Ry \\ LSL \$1,Rx \\
OR.C \$1,Ry} & Logical shift left with carry. Note that the instruction order is now backwards, to keep the conditions valid. That is, LSL sets the carry flag, so if we did this the othe way with Rx before Ry, then the condition flag wouldn't have been right for an OR correction at the end. \\\hline \parbox[t]{1.5in}{LSR \$1,Rx \\ LSRC \$1,Ry} & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{CLR Rz \\ LSR \$1,Ry \\
LDIHI.C \$8000h,Rz \\ LSR \$1,Rx \\
OR Rz,Rx}
& Logical shift right with carry \\\hline
NEG Rx & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{XOR \$-1,Rx \\ ADD \$1,Rx} & \\\hline
NOOP & NOOP & While there are many
operations that do nothing, such as MOV Rx,Rx, or OR \$0,Rx, these operations have consequences in that they might stall the bus if Rx isn't ready yet. For this reason, we have a dedicated NOOP instruction. \\\hline NOT Rx & XOR \$-1,Rx & \\\hline
POP Rx
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{LOD \$-1(SP),Rx \\ ADD \$1,SP}
& Note
that for interrupt purposes, one can never depend upon the value at
(SP).  Hence you read from it, then increment it, lest having
incremented it firost something then comes along and writes to that
value before you can read the result. \\\hline
PUSH Rx
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{SUB \$1,SPa \\ STO Rx,\$1(SP)}
& \\\hline
RESET
& \parbox[t]{1in}{STO \$1,\$watchdog(R12)\\NOOP\\NOOP}
& \parbox[t]{3in}{This depends upon the peripheral base address being
in R12.

supervisor mode.}\\\hline
RET & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{LOD \$-1(SP),R0 \\ MOV \$-1+SP,SP \\
MOV R0,PC}
& An alternative might be to LOD \$-1(SP),PC, followed by depending upon the calling program to ADD \$1,SP. \\\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-2}
\end{center}\end{table}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
RET & MOV R12,PC
& This is the high(er) speed version, that doesn't touch the stack.
As such, it doesn't suffer a stall on memory read/write to the stack.
\\\hline
STEP Rr,Rt
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{LSR \$1,Rr \\ XOR.C Rt,Rr} & Step a Galois implementation of a Linear Feedback Shift Register, Rr, using taps Rt \\\hline STO.b Rx,\$addr
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{%
LDI \$addr,Ra \\ LDI \$addr,Rb \\
LSR \$2,Ra \\ AND \$3,Rb \\
SUB \$32,Rb \\ LOD (Ra),Ry \\ AND \$0ffh,Rx \\
AND \$-0ffh,Ry \\ ROL Rb,Rx \\ OR Rx,Ry \\ STO Ry,(Ra) } & \parbox[t]{3in}{This CPU and it's bus are {\em not} optimized for byte-wise operations. Note that in this example, \$addr is a
byte-wise address, whereas in all of our other examples it is a
of character accesses from 16 MB down to 4MB.F
Further, this instruction implies a byte ordering,
such as big or little endian.} \\\hline
SWAP Rx,Ry
& \parbox[t]{1.5in}{
XOR Ry,Rx \\
XOR Rx,Ry \\
XOR Ry,Rx}
& While no extra registers are needed, this example
does take 3-clocks. \\\hline
TRAP \#X
& LDILO \$x,CC & This approach uses the unused bits of the CC register as a TRAP address. If these bits are zero, no trap has occurred. Unlike my previous approach, which was to use a trap peripheral, this approach has no delay associated with it. To work, the supervisor will need to clear this register following any trap, and the user will need to be careful to only set this register prior to a trap condition. Likewise, when setting this value, the user will need to make certain that the SLEEP and GIE bits are not set in \$x.  LDI would also work,
however using LDILO permits the use of conditional traps.  (i.e.,
trap if the zero flag is set.)  Should you wish to trap off of a
register value, you could equivalently load \$x into the register and then MOV it into the CC register. \\\hline TST Rx & TST \$-1,Rx
& Set the condition codes based upon Rx.  Could also do a CMP \$0,Rx, ADD \$0,Rx, SUB \$0,Rx, etc, AND \$-1,Rx, etc.  The TST and CMP
approaches won't stall future pipeline stages looking for the value
of Rx. \\\hline
WAIT
& Or \$SLEEP,CC & Wait 'til interrupt. In an interrupts disabled context, this becomes a HALT instruction. </TABLE> \end{tabular} \caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-3} \end{center}\end{table} \iffalse \fi \section{Pipeline Stages} \begin{enumerate} \item {\bf Prefetch}: Read instruction from memory (cache if possible). This stage is actually pipelined itself, and so it will stall if the PC ever changes. Stalls are also created here if the instruction isn't in the prefetch cache. \item {\bf Decode}: Decode instruction into op code, register(s) to read, and immediate offset. \item {\bf Read Operands}: Read registers and apply any immediate values to them. This stage will stall if any source operand is pending. A proper optimizing compiler, therefore, will schedule an instruction between the instruction that produces the result and the instruction that uses it. \item Split into two tracks: An {\bf ALU} which will accomplish a simple instruction, and the {\bf MemOps} stage which accomplishes memory read/write. \begin{itemize} \item Loads stall instructions that access the register until it is written to the register set. \item Condition codes are available upon completion \item Issuing an instruction to the memory while the memory is busy will stall the bus. If the bus deadlocks, only a reset will release the CPU. (Watchdog timer, anyone?) \end{itemize} \item {\bf Write-Back}: Conditionally write back the result to register set, applying the condition. This routine is bi-re-entrant: either the memory or the simple instruction may request a register write. \end{enumerate} \section{Pipeline Logic} How the CPU handles some instruction combinations can be telling when determining what happens in the pipeline. The following lists some examples: \begin{itemize} \item {\bf Delayed Branching} I had originally hoped to implement delayed branching. However, what happens in debug mode? That is, what happens when a debugger tries to single step an instruction? While I can easily single step the computer in either user or supervisor mode from externally, this processor does not appear able to step the CPU in user mode from within user mode--gosh, not even from within supervisor mode--such as if a process had a debugger attached. As the processor exists, I would have one result stepping the CPU from a debugger, and another stepping it externally. This is unacceptable, and so this CPU does not support delayed branching. \item {\bf Register Result:} {\tt MOV R0,R1; MOV R1,R2 } What value does R2 get, the value of R1 before the first move or the value of R0? Placing the value of R0 into R1 requires a pipeline stall, and possibly two, as I have the pipeline designed. The ZIP CPU architecture requires that R2 must equal R0 at the end of this operation. This may stall the pipeline 1-2 cycles. \item {\bf Condition Codes Result:} {\tt CMP R0,R1;Mov.EQ \$x,PC}

At issue is the same item as above, save that the CMP instruction
updates the flags that the MOV instruction depends
upon.

The Zip CPU architecture requires that condition codes must be updated
and available immediately for the next instruction without stalling the
pipeline.

\item {\bf Condition Codes Register Result:} {\tt CMP R0,R1; MOV CC,R2}

At issue is the
fact that the logic supporting the CC register is more complicated than
the logic supporting any other register.

The ZIP CPU will stall 1--2 cycles on this instruction, until the
CC register is valid.

\item {\bf Delayed Branching: } {\tt ADD \$x,PC; MOV R0,R1} At issues is whether or not the instruction following the jump will take place before the jump. In other words, is the MOV to the PC register handled differently from an ADD to the PC register? In the Zip architecture, MOV'es and ADD's use the same logic (simplifies the logic). \end{itemize} As I've studied this, I find several approaches to handling pipeline issues. These approaches (and their consequences) are listed below. \begin{itemize} \item {\bf All All issued instructions complete, Stages stall individually} What about a slow pre-fetch? Nominally, this works well: any issued instruction just runs to completion. If there are four issued instructions in the pipeline, with the writeback instruction being a write-to-PC instruction, the other three instructions naturally finish. This approach fails when reading instructions from the flash, since such reads require N clocks to clocks to complete. Thus there may be only one instruction in the pipeline if reading from flash, or a full pipeline if reading from cache. Each of these approaches would produce a different response. \item {\bf Issued instructions may be canceled} Stages stall individually First problem: Memory operations cannot be canceled, even reads may have side effects on peripherals that cannot be canceled later. Further, in the case of an interrupt, it's difficult to know what to cancel. What happens in a \hbox{\tt MOV.C \$x,PC} followed by a \hbox{\tt MOV \$y,PC} instruction? Which get canceled? Because it isn't clear what would need to be canceled, this instruction combination is not recommended. \item {\bf All issued instructions complete.} All stages are filled, or the entire pipeline stalls. What about debug control? What about register writes taking an extra clock stage? MOV R0,R1; MOV R1,R2 should place the value of R0 into R2. How do you restart the pipeline after an interrupt? What address do you use? The last issued instruction? But the branch delay slots may make that invalid! Reading from the CPU debug port in this case yields inconsistent results: the CPU will halt or step with instructions stuck in the pipeline. Reading registers will give no indication of what is going on in the pipeline, just the results of completed operations, not of operations that have been started and not yet completed. Perhaps we should just report the state of the CPU based upon what instructions (PC values) have successfully completed? Thus the debug instruction is the one that will write registers on the next clock. Suggestion: Suppose we load extra information in the two CC register(s) for debugging intermediate pipeline stages? The next problem, though, is how to deal with the read operand pipeline stage needing the result from the register pipeline.a \item {\bf Memory instructions must complete} All instructions that enter into the memory module *must* complete. Issued instructions from the prefetch, decode, or operand read stages may or may not complete. Jumps into code must be valid, so that interrupt returns may be valid. All instructions entering the ALU complete. This looks to be the simplest approach. While the logic may be difficult, this appears to be the only re-entrant approach. A {\tt new\_pc} flag will be high anytime the PC changes in an unpredictable way (i.e., it doesn't increment). This includes jumps as well as interrupts and interrupt returns. Whenever this flag may go high, memory operations and ALU operations will stall until the result is known. When the flag does go high, anything in the prefetch, decode, and read-op stage will be invalidated. \end{itemize} \chapter{Peripherals}\label{chap:periph} \section{Interrupt Controller} \section{Counter} The Zip Counter is a very simple counter: it just counts. It cannot be halted. When it rolls over, it issues an interrupt. Writing a value to the counter just sets the current value, and it starts counting again from that value. Eight counters are implemented in the Zip System for process accounting. This may change in the future, as nothing as yet uses these counters. \section{Timer} The Zip Timer is also very simple: it simply counts down to zero. When it transitions from a one to a zero it creates an interrupt. Writing any non-zero value to the timer starts the timer. If the high order bit is set when writing to the timer, the timer becomes an interval timer and reloads its last start time on any interrupt. Hence, to mark seconds, one might set the timer to 100~million (the number of clocks per second), and set the high bit. Ever after, the timer will interrupt the CPU once per second (assuming a 100~MHz clock). \section{Watchdog Timer} The watchdog timer is no different from any of the other timers, save for one critical difference: the interrupt line from the watchdog timer is tied to the reset line of the CPU. Hence writing a 1' to the watchdog timer will always reset the CPU. To stop the Watchdog timer, write a '0' to it. To start it, write any other number to it---as with the other timers. While the watchdog timer supports interval mode, it doesn't make as much sense as it did with the other timers. \section{Jiffies} This peripheral is motivated by the Linux use of jiffies' whereby a process can request to be put to sleep until a certain number of jiffies' have elapsed. Using this interface, the CPU can read the number of jiffies' from the peripheral (it only has the one location in address space), add the sleep length to it, and write teh result back to the peripheral. The zipjiffies peripheral will record the value written to it only if it is nearer the current counter value than the last current waiting interrupt time. If no other interrupts are waiting, and this time is in the future, it will be enabled. (There is currently no way to disable a jiffie interrupt once set, other than to disable the register in the interrupt controller.) The processor may then place this sleep request into a list among other sleep requests. Once the timer expires, it would write the next Jiffy request to the peripheral and wake up the process whose timer had expired. Indeed, the Jiffies register is nothing more than a glorified counter with an interrupt. Unlike the other counters, the Jiffies register cannot be set. Writes to the jiffies register create an interrupt time. When the Jiffies register later equals the value written to it, an interrupt will be asserted and the register then continues counting as though no interrupt had taken place. The purpose of this register is to support alarm times within a CPU. To set an alarm for a particular process$N$clocks in advance, read the current Jiffies value, and$N\$, and write it back to the Jiffies register.  The
O/S must also keep track of values written to the Jiffies register.  Thus,
when an alarm' trips, it should be remoed from the list of alarms, the list
should be sorted, and the next alarm in terms of Jiffies should be written
to the register.

\chapter{Operation}\label{chap:ops}

\chapter{Registers}\label{chap:regs}

\chapter{Wishbone Datasheet}\label{chap:wishbone}
The Zip System supports two wishbone accesses, a slave debug port and a master
port for the system itself.  These are shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:wishbone-slave}
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{wishboneds}
Revision level of wishbone & WB B4 spec \\\hline
Type of interface & Slave, Read/Write, single words only \\\hline
Port size & 32--bit \\\hline
Port granularity & 32--bit \\\hline
Maximum Operand Size & 32--bit \\\hline
Data transfer ordering & (Irrelevant) \\\hline
Clock constraints & Works at 100~MHz on a Basys--3 board\\\hline
Signal Names & \begin{tabular}{ll}
Signal Name & Wishbone Equivalent \\\hline
{\tt i\_clk} & {\tt CLK\_I} \\
{\tt i\_dbg\_cyc} & {\tt CYC\_I} \\
{\tt i\_dbg\_stb} & {\tt STB\_I} \\
{\tt i\_dbg\_we} & {\tt WE\_I} \\
{\tt i\_dbg\_data} & {\tt DAT\_I} \\
{\tt o\_dbg\_ack} & {\tt ACK\_O} \\
{\tt o\_dbg\_stall} & {\tt STALL\_O} \\
{\tt o\_dbg\_data} & {\tt DAT\_O}
\end{tabular}\\\hline
\end{wishboneds}
\caption{Wishbone Datasheet}\label{tbl:wishbone-slave}
\end{center}\end{table}
and Tbl.~\ref{tbl:wishbone-master} respectively.
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{wishboneds}
Revision level of wishbone & WB B4 spec \\\hline
Type of interface & Master, Read/Write, sometimes pipelined \\\hline
Port size & 32--bit \\\hline
Port granularity & 32--bit \\\hline
Maximum Operand Size & 32--bit \\\hline
Data transfer ordering & (Irrelevant) \\\hline
Clock constraints & Works at 100~MHz on a Basys--3 board\\\hline
Signal Names & \begin{tabular}{ll}
Signal Name & Wishbone Equivalent \\\hline
{\tt i\_clk} & {\tt CLK\_O} \\
{\tt o\_wb\_cyc} & {\tt CYC\_O} \\
{\tt o\_wb\_stb} & {\tt STB\_O} \\
{\tt o\_wb\_we} & {\tt WE\_O} \\
{\tt o\_wb\_data} & {\tt DAT\_O} \\
{\tt i\_wb\_ack} & {\tt ACK\_I} \\
{\tt i\_wb\_stall} & {\tt STALL\_I} \\
{\tt i\_wb\_data} & {\tt DAT\_I}
\end{tabular}\\\hline
\end{wishboneds}
\caption{Wishbone Datasheet}\label{tbl:wishbone-master}
\end{center}\end{table}
I do not recommend that you connect these together through the interconnect.

The big thing to notice is that both the real time clock and the real time
date modules act as wishbone slaves, and that all accesses to the registers of
either module are 32--bit reads and writes.  The address bus does not offer
byte level, but rather 32--bit word level resolution.  Select lines are not
implemented.  Bit ordering is the normal ordering where bit~31 is the most
significant bit and so forth.

\chapter{Clocks}\label{chap:clocks}

This core is based upon the Basys--3 design.  The Basys--3 development board
contains one external 100~MHz clock, which is sufficient to run the ZIP CPU
core.
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{clocklist}
i\_clk & External & 100~MHz & 100~MHz & System clock.\\\hline
\end{clocklist}
\caption{List of Clocks}\label{tbl:clocks}
\end{center}\end{table}
I hesitate to suggest that the core can run faster than 100~MHz, since I have
had struggled with various timing violations to keep it at 100~MHz.  So, for
now, I will only state that it can run at 100~MHz.

\chapter{I/O Ports}\label{chap:ioports}
The I/O ports for this clock are shown in Tbls.~\ref{tbl:iowishbone}
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{portlist}
i\_clk & 1 & Input & System clock, used for time and wishbone interfaces.\\\hline
i\_wb\_cyc & 1 & Input & Wishbone bus cycle wire.\\\hline
i\_wb\_stb & 1 & Input & Wishbone strobe.\\\hline
i\_wb\_we & 1 & Input & Wishbone write enable.\\\hline
i\_wb\_data & 32 & Input & Wishbone bus data register for use when writing
(configuring) the core from the bus.\\\hline
o\_wb\_ack & 1 & Output & Return value acknowledging a wishbone write, or
signifying valid data in the case of a wishbone read request.
\\\hline
o\_wb\_stall & 1 & Output & Indicates the device is not yet ready for another
wishbone access, effectively stalling the bus.\\\hline
o\_wb\_data & 32 & Output & Wishbone data bus, returning data values read
from the interface.\\\hline
\end{portlist}
\caption{Wishbone I/O Ports}\label{tbl:iowishbone}
\end{center}\end{table}
and~Tbl.~\ref{tbl:ioother}.
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{portlist}
o\_sseg & 32 & Output & Lines to control a seven segment display, to be
sent to that display's driver.  Each eight bit byte controls
one digit in the display, with the bottom bit in the byte
controlling the decimal point.\\\hline
o\_led & 16 & Output & Output LED's, consisting of a 16--bit counter counting
from zero to all ones each minute, and synchronized with each
minute so as to create an indicator of when the next minute
will take place when only the hours and minutes can be
displayed.\\\hline
o\_interrupt & 1 & Output & A pulsed/strobed interrupt line.  When the
clock needs to generate an interrupt, it will set this line
high for one clock cycle.  \\\hline
o\_ppd & 1 & Output & A pulse per day' signal which can be fed into the
real--time date module.  This line will be high on the clock before
the stroke of midnight, allowing the date module to turn over to the
next day at exactly the same time the clock module turns over to the
next day.\\\hline
i\_hack & 1 & Input & When this line is raised, copies are made of the
internal state registers on the next clock.  These registers can then
be used for an accurate time hack regarding the state of the clock
at the time this line was strobed.\\\hline
\end{portlist}
\caption{Other I/O Ports}\label{tbl:ioother}
\end{center}\end{table}
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:iowishbone} reiterates the wishbone I/O values just discussed in
Chapt.~\ref{chap:wishbone}, and so need no further discussion here.

% Appendices
% Index
\end{document}

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