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\chapter{Introduction}
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The Modular Simultaneous Exponentiation core is a flexible hardware design to support modular simultaneous exponentiations
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in embedded systems. It is able to compute a double exponentiation as given by~(\ref{eq:mse})
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\begin{align}\label{eq:mse}
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g_{0}^{e_0} \cdot g_{1}^{e_1} \bmod m
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\end{align}
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where:
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\begin{align}
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        g_{0} &= \left(g_{0_{n-1}}, \cdots, g_{0_{1}}, g_{0_{0}}\right)_{2}\hspace{1.5cm} \text{with } n \text{ being the number of bits of the base operands}\nonumber \\
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        g_{1} &= \left(g_{1_{n-1}}, \cdots, g_{1_{1}}, g_{1_{0}}\right)_{2}\nonumber \\
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        m &=\left(m_{n-1}, \cdots, m_{1}, m_{0}\right)_{2}\nonumber \\
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        e_{0} &=\left(e_{0_{t-1}}, \cdots, e_{0_{1}}, e_{0_{0}}\right)_{2}\hspace{1.5cm} \text{with } t \text{ being the number of bits of the exponents}\nonumber \\
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        e_{1} &=\left(e_{1_{t-1}}, \cdots, e_{1_{1}}, e_{1_{0}}\right)_{2}\nonumber
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\end{align}
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This operation is commonly used in anonymous credential and authentication cryptosystems like DSA \footnote{FIPS-186-3, the third and current revision to the official DSA specification:\\\hspace*{1cm}\url{http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips186-3/fips_186-3.pdf}}, Idemix \footnote{IBM Idemix project website: \url{https://www.zurich.ibm.com/security/idemix/}}, etc.. For this reason the core is designed with the use of large base operands in mind ($n$=512, 1024, 1536 bit and more..). The hardware is optimized for these
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simultaneous exponentiations, but also supports single base exponentiations and single Montgomery multiplications.
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Flexibility is offered to the user by providing the possibility to split the multiplier pipeline into 2 smaller parts, so that in total
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3 different base operand lengths can be supported. The length of the exponents can be chosen freely\footnote{The controlling software is responsible for loading in the desired number of exponent bits into the core's exponent FIFO}

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