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\documentclass{gqtekspec}
\documentclass{gqtekspec}
\usepackage{import}
\usepackage{import}
 
\usepackage{bytefield}
% \graphicspath{{../gfx}}
% \graphicspath{{../gfx}}
\project{Zip CPU}
\project{Zip CPU}
\title{Specification}
\title{Specification}
\author{Dan Gisselquist, Ph.D.}
\author{Dan Gisselquist, Ph.D.}
\email{dgisselq (at) opencores.org}
\email{dgisselq (at) opencores.org}
\revision{Rev.~0.6}
\revision{Rev.~0.7}
\definecolor{webred}{rgb}{0.2,0,0}
\definecolor{webred}{rgb}{0.5,0,0}
\definecolor{webgreen}{rgb}{0,0.2,0}
\definecolor{webgreen}{rgb}{0,0.4,0}
\usepackage[dvips,ps2pdf,colorlinks=true,
\usepackage[dvips,ps2pdf,colorlinks=true,
        anchorcolor=black,pagecolor=webgreen,pdfpagelabels,hypertexnames,
        anchorcolor=black,pdfpagelabels,hypertexnames,
        pdfauthor={Dan Gisselquist},
        pdfauthor={Dan Gisselquist},
        pdfsubject={Zip CPU}]{hyperref}
        pdfsubject={Zip CPU}]{hyperref}
 
\hypersetup{
 
        colorlinks = true,
 
        linkcolor  = webred,
 
        citecolor  = webgreen
 
}
\begin{document}
\begin{document}
\pagestyle{gqtekspecplain}
\pagestyle{gqtekspecplain}
\titlepage
\titlepage
\begin{license}
\begin{license}
Copyright (C) \theyear\today, Gisselquist Technology, LLC
Copyright (C) \theyear\today, Gisselquist Technology, LLC
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You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program.  If not, see \hbox{<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>} for a
with this program.  If not, see \hbox{<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>} for a
copy.
copy.
\end{license}
\end{license}
\begin{revisionhistory}
\begin{revisionhistory}
 
0.7 & 12/22/2015 & Gisselquist & New Instruction Set Architecture \\\hline
0.6 & 11/17/2015 & Gisselquist & Added graphics to illustrate pipeline discussion.\\\hline
0.6 & 11/17/2015 & Gisselquist & Added graphics to illustrate pipeline discussion.\\\hline
0.5 & 9/29/2015 & Gisselquist & Added pipelined memory access discussion.\\\hline
0.5 & 9/29/2015 & Gisselquist & Added pipelined memory access discussion.\\\hline
0.4 & 9/19/2015 & Gisselquist & Added DMA controller, improved stall information, and self--assessment info.\\\hline
0.4 & 9/19/2015 & Gisselquist & Added DMA controller, improved stall information, and self--assessment info.\\\hline
0.3 & 8/22/2015 & Gisselquist & First completed draft\\\hline
0.3 & 8/22/2015 & Gisselquist & First completed draft\\\hline
0.2 & 8/19/2015 & Gisselquist & Still Draft, more complete \\\hline
0.2 & 8/19/2015 & Gisselquist & Still Draft, more complete \\\hline
Line 137... Line 144...
 
 
 
 
The original goal of the Zip CPU was to be a very simple CPU.   You might
The original goal of the Zip CPU was to be a very simple CPU.   You might
think of it as a poor man's alternative to the OpenRISC architecture.
think of it as a poor man's alternative to the OpenRISC architecture.
For this reason, all instructions have been designed to be as simple as
For this reason, all instructions have been designed to be as simple as
possible, and are all designed to be executed in one instruction cycle per
possible, and the base instructions are all designed to be executed in one
instruction, barring pipeline stalls.  Indeed, even the bus has been simplified
instruction cycle per instruction, barring pipeline stalls.  Indeed, even the
to a constant 32-bit width, with no option for more or less.  This has
bus has been simplified to a constant 32-bit width, with no option for more
resulted in the choice to drop push and pop instructions, pre-increment and
or less.  This has resulted in the choice to drop push and pop instructions,
post-decrement addressing modes, and more.
pre-increment and post-decrement addressing modes, and more.
 
 
For those who like buzz words, the Zip CPU is:
For those who like buzz words, the Zip CPU is:
\begin{itemize}
\begin{itemize}
\item A 32-bit CPU: All registers are 32-bits, addresses are 32-bits,
\item A 32-bit CPU: All registers are 32-bits, addresses are 32-bits,
                instructions are 32-bits wide, etc.
                instructions are 32-bits wide, etc.
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\item Wishbone compliant.  All peripherals are accessed just like
\item Wishbone compliant.  All peripherals are accessed just like
                memory across this bus.
                memory across this bus.
\item A Von-Neumann architecture.  (The instructions and data share a
\item A Von-Neumann architecture.  (The instructions and data share a
                common bus.)
                common bus.)
\item A pipelined architecture, having stages for {\bf Prefetch},
\item A pipelined architecture, having stages for {\bf Prefetch},
                {\bf Decode}, {\bf Read-Operand}, the {\bf ALU/Memory}
                {\bf Decode}, {\bf Read-Operand}, a
                unit, and {\bf Write-back}.  See Fig.~\ref{fig:cpu}
                combined stage containing the {\bf ALU},
 
                {\bf Memory}, {\bf Divide}, and {\bf Floating Point}
 
                units, and then the final {\bf Write-back} stage.
 
                See Fig.~\ref{fig:cpu}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=3.5in]{../gfx/cpu.eps}
\includegraphics[width=3.5in]{../gfx/cpu.eps}
\caption{Zip CPU internal pipeline architecture}\label{fig:cpu}
\caption{Zip CPU internal pipeline architecture}\label{fig:cpu}
\end{center}\end{figure}
\end{center}\end{figure}
                for a diagram of this structure.
                for a diagram of this structure.
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implemented within any FPGA.  This helps to minimize real-estate, while
implemented within any FPGA.  This helps to minimize real-estate, while
maintaining a high clock speed.  The disadvantage is that it can severely
maintaining a high clock speed.  The disadvantage is that it can severely
degrade the overall instructions per clock count.
degrade the overall instructions per clock count.
 
 
Soft core's within an FPGA have an additional characteristic regarding
Soft core's within an FPGA have an additional characteristic regarding
memory access: it is slow.  Memory on chip may be accessed at a single
memory access: it is slow.  While memory on chip may be accessed at a single
cycle per access, but small FPGA's have a limited amount of memory on chip.
cycle per access, small FPGA's often have only a limited amount of memory on
Going off chip, however, is expensive.  Two examples will prove this point.  On
chip.  Going off chip, however, is expensive.  Two examples will prove this
 
point.  On
the XuLA2 board, Flash can be accessed at 128~cycles per 32--bit word,
the XuLA2 board, Flash can be accessed at 128~cycles per 32--bit word,
or 64~cycles per subsequent word in a pipelined architecture.  Likewise, the
or 64~cycles per subsequent word in a pipelined architecture.  Likewise, the
SDRAM chip on the XuLA2 board allows 6~cycle access for a write, 10~cycles
SDRAM chip on the XuLA2 board allows a 6~cycle access for a write, 10~cycles
per read, and 2~cycles for any subsequent pipelined access read or write.
per read, and 2~cycles for any subsequent pipelined access read or write.
Either way you look at it, this memory access will be slow and this doesn't
Either way you look at it, this memory access will be slow and this doesn't
account for any logic delays should the bus implementation logic get
account for any logic delays should the bus implementation logic get
complicated.
complicated.
 
 
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A final characteristic of SwiC's within FPGA's is the peripherals.
A final characteristic of SwiC's within FPGA's is the peripherals.
Specifically, FPGA's are highly reconfigurable.  Soft peripherals can easily
Specifically, FPGA's are highly reconfigurable.  Soft peripherals can easily
be created on chip to support the SwiC if necessary.  As an example, a simple
be created on chip to support the SwiC if necessary.  As an example, a simple
30-bit peripheral could easily support reversing 30-bit numbers: a read from
30-bit peripheral could easily support reversing 30-bit numbers: a read from
the peripheral returns it's bit--reversed address.  This is cheap within an
the peripheral returns it's bit--reversed address.  This is cheap within an
FPGA, but expensive in instructions.
FPGA, but expensive in instructions.  Reading from another 16--bit peripheral
 
might calculate a sine function, where the 16--bit address internal to the
 
peripheral was the angle of the sine wave.
 
 
Indeed, anything that must be done fast within an FPGA is likely to already
Indeed, anything that must be done fast within an FPGA is likely to already
be done--elsewhere in the fabric.  This leaves the CPU with the role of handling
be done--elsewhere in the fabric.  This leaves the CPU with the simple role
sequential tasks that need a lot of state.
of solely handling sequential tasks that need a lot of state.
 
 
This means that the SwiC needs to live within a very unique environment,
This means that the SwiC needs to live within a very unique environment,
separate and different from the traditional SoC.  That isn't to say that a
separate and different from the traditional SoC.  That isn't to say that a
SwiC cannot be turned into a SoC, just that this SwiC has not been designed
SwiC cannot be turned into a SoC, just that this SwiC has not been designed
for that purpose.
for that purpose.
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        pipeline: if you change an instruction partially through the pipeline,
        pipeline: if you change an instruction partially through the pipeline,
        the whole pipeline needs to be cleansed.  Likewise if you change
        the whole pipeline needs to be cleansed.  Likewise if you change
        an instruction in memory, you need to make sure the cache is reloaded
        an instruction in memory, you need to make sure the cache is reloaded
        with the new instruction.
        with the new instruction.
 
 
\item {\bf Prefetch Cache:} My original implementation had a very
\item {\bf Prefetch Cache:} My original implementation, {\tt prefetch}, had
        simple prefetch stage.  Any time the PC changed the prefetch would go
        a very simple prefetch stage.  Any time the PC changed the prefetch
        and fetch the new instruction.  While this was perhaps this simplest
        would go and fetch the new instruction.  While this was perhaps this
        approach, it cost roughly five clocks for every instruction.  This
        simplest approach, it cost roughly five clocks for every instruction.
        was deemed unacceptable, as I wanted a CPU that could execute
        This was deemed unacceptable, as I wanted a CPU that could execute
        instructions in one cycle.  I therefore have a prefetch cache that
        instructions in one cycle.
        issues pipelined wishbone accesses to memory and then pushes
 
        instructions at the CPU.  Sadly, this accounts for about 20\% of the
        My second implementation, {\tt pipefetch}, attempted to make the most
        logic in the entire CPU, or 15\% of the logic in the entire system.
        use of pipelined memory.  When a new CPU address was issued, it would
 
        start reading
 
        memory in a pipelined fashion, and issuing instructions as soon as they
 
        were ready.  This cache was a sliding window in memory.  This suffered
 
        from some difficult performance problems, though.  If the CPU was
 
        alternating between two diverse sections of code, both could never be
 
        in the cache at the same time--causing lots of cache misses.  Further,
 
        the extra logic to implement this window cost an extra clock cycle
 
        in the cache implementation, slowing down branches.
 
 
 
        The Zip CPU now has a third cache implementation, {\tt pfcache}.  This
 
        new implementation takes only a single cycle per access, but costs a
 
        full cache line miss on any miss.  While configurable, a full cache
 
        line miss might mean that the CPU needs to read 256~instructions from
 
        memory before it can execute the first one of them.
 
 
\item {\bf Operating System:} In order to support an operating system,
\item {\bf Operating System:} In order to support an operating system,
        interrupts and so forth, the CPU needs to support supervisor and
        interrupts and so forth, the CPU needs to support supervisor and
        user modes, as well as a means of switching between them.  For example,
        user modes, as well as a means of switching between them.  For example,
        the user needs a means of executing a system call.  This is the
        the user needs a means of executing a system call.  This is the
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Modern timesharing systems also depend upon a {\bf Timer} interrupt
Modern timesharing systems also depend upon a {\bf Timer} interrupt
to handle task swapping.  For the Zip CPU, this interrupt is handled
to handle task swapping.  For the Zip CPU, this interrupt is handled
external to the CPU as part of the CPU System, found in {\tt zipsystem.v}.
external to the CPU as part of the CPU System, found in {\tt zipsystem.v}.
The timer module itself is found in {\tt ziptimer.v}.
The timer module itself is found in {\tt ziptimer.v}.
 
 
 
\item {\bf Bus Errors:} My original implementation had no logic to handle
 
        what would happen if the CPU attempted to read or write a non-existent
 
        memory address.  This changed after I needed to troubleshoot a failure
 
        caused by a subroutine return to a non-existent address.
 
 
 
        My next problem bus problem was caused by a misbehaving peripheral.
 
        Whenever the CPU attempted to read from or write to this peripheral,
 
        the peripheral would take control of the wishbone bus and not return
 
        it.  For example, it might never return an {\tt ACK} to signal
 
        the end of the bus transaction.  This led to the implementation of
 
        a wishbone bus watchdog that would create a bus error if any particular
 
        bus action didn't complete in a timely fashion.
 
 
\item {\bf Pipeline Stalls:} My original plan was to not support pipeline
\item {\bf Pipeline Stalls:} My original plan was to not support pipeline
        stalls at all, but rather to require the compiler to properly schedule
        stalls at all, but rather to require the compiler to properly schedule
        all instructions so that stalls would never be necessary.  After trying
        all instructions so that stalls would never be necessary.  After trying
        to build such an architecture, I gave up, having learned some things:
        to build such an architecture, I gave up, having learned some things:
 
 
Line 392... Line 431...
        stalls, as illustrated in Fig.~\ref{fig:stacking}.
        stalls, as illustrated in Fig.~\ref{fig:stacking}.
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=4in]{../gfx/stacking.eps}
\includegraphics[width=4in]{../gfx/stacking.eps}
\caption{Instructions can stack up behind a stalled instruction}\label{fig:stacking}
\caption{Instructions can stack up behind a stalled instruction}\label{fig:stacking}
\end{center}\end{figure}
\end{center}\end{figure}
 
        However, if a pipeline hazard is detected, a stage can stall in order
 
        to prevent the previous from moving forward.
 
 
        This approach is also different from other pipeline approaches.
        This approach is also different from other pipeline approaches.
        Instead of keeping the entire pipeline filled, each stage is treated
        Instead of keeping the entire pipeline filled, each stage is treated
        independently.  Therefore, individual stages may move forward as long
        independently.  Therefore, individual stages may move forward as long
        as the subsequent stage is available, regardless of whether the stage
        as the subsequent stage is available, regardless of whether the stage
        behind it is filled.
        behind it is filled.
 
 
\item {\bf Verilog Modules:} When examining how other processors worked
 
        here on open cores, many of them had one separate module per pipeline
 
        stage.  While this appeared to me to be a fascinating and commendable
 
        idea, my own implementation didn't work out quite so nicely.
 
 
 
        As an example, the decode module produces a {\em lot} of
 
        control wires and registers.  Creating a module out of this, with
 
        only the simplest of logic within it, seemed to be more a lesson
 
        in passing wires around, rather than encapsulating logic.
 
 
 
        Another example was the register writeback section.  I would love
 
        this section to be a module in its own right, and many have made them
 
        such.  However, other modules depend upon writeback results other
 
        than just what's placed in the register (i.e., the control wires).
 
        For these reasons, I didn't manage to fit this section into it's
 
        own module.
 
 
 
        The result is that the majority of the CPU code can be found in
 
        the {\tt zipcpu.v} file.
 
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
 
 
With that introduction out of the way, let's move on to the instruction
With that introduction out of the way, let's move on to the instruction
set.
set.
 
 
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whereas the user set is used otherwise.  Of this register set, the Program
whereas the user set is used otherwise.  Of this register set, the Program
Counter (PC) is register 15, whereas the status register (SR) or condition
Counter (PC) is register 15, whereas the status register (SR) or condition
code register
code register
(CC) is register 14.  By convention, the stack pointer will be register 13 and
(CC) is register 14.  By convention, the stack pointer will be register 13 and
noted as (SP)--although there is nothing special about this register other
noted as (SP)--although there is nothing special about this register other
than this convention.
than this convention.  Also by convention register~12 will point to a global
 
offset table, and may be abbreviated as the (GBL) register.
The CPU can access both register sets via move instructions from the
The CPU can access both register sets via move instructions from the
supervisor state, whereas the user state can only access the user registers.
supervisor state, whereas the user state can only access the user registers.
 
 
The status register is special, and bears further mention.  As shown in
The status register is special, and bears further mention.  As shown in
Fig.~\ref{tbl:cc-register},
Fig.~\ref{tbl:cc-register},
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{bitlist}
\begin{bitlist}
31\ldots 11 & R/W & Reserved for future uses\\\hline
31\ldots 13 & R/W & Reserved for future uses\\\hline
10 & R & (Reserved for) Bus-Error Flag\\\hline
12 & R & (Reserved for) Floating Point Exception\\\hline
 
11 & R & Division by Zero Exception\\\hline
 
10 & R & Bus-Error Flag\\\hline
9 & R & Trap, or user interrupt, Flag.  Cleared on return to userspace.\\\hline
9 & R & Trap, or user interrupt, Flag.  Cleared on return to userspace.\\\hline
8 & R & Illegal Instruction Flag\\\hline
8 & R & Illegal Instruction Flag\\\hline
7 & R/W & Break--Enable\\\hline
7 & R/W & Break--Enable\\\hline
6 & R/W & Step\\\hline
6 & R/W & Step\\\hline
5 & R/W & Global Interrupt Enable (GIE)\\\hline
5 & R/W & Global Interrupt Enable (GIE)\\\hline
Line 482... Line 506...
Of the condition codes, the bottom four bits are the current flags:
Of the condition codes, the bottom four bits are the current flags:
                Zero (Z),
                Zero (Z),
                Carry (C),
                Carry (C),
                Negative (N),
                Negative (N),
                and Overflow (V).
                and Overflow (V).
 
On those instructions that set the flags, these flags will be set based upon
The next bit is a clock enable (0 to enable) or sleep bit (1 to put
the output of the instruction.  If the result is zero, the Z flag will be set.
        the CPU to sleep).  Setting this bit will cause the CPU to
If the high order bit is set, the N flag will be set.  If the instruction
        wait for an interrupt (if interrupts are enabled), or to
caused a bit to fall off the end, the carry bit will be set.  Finally, if
        completely halt (if interrupts are disabled).
the instruction causes a signed integer overflow, the V flag will be set
 
afterwards.
 
 
 
The next bit is a sleep bit.  Set this bit to one to disable instruction
 
        execution and place the CPU to sleep, or to zero to keep the pipeline
 
        running.  Setting this bit will cause the CPU to wait for an interrupt
 
        (if interrupts are enabled), or to completely halt (if interrupts are
 
        disabled).  In order to prevent users from halting the CPU, only the
 
        supervisor is allowed to both put the CPU to sleep and disable
 
        interrupts.  Any user attempt to do so will simply result in a switch
 
        to supervisor mode.
 
 
The sixth bit is a global interrupt enable bit (GIE).  When this
The sixth bit is a global interrupt enable bit (GIE).  When this
        sixth bit is a `1' interrupts will be enabled, else disabled.  When
        sixth bit is a `1' interrupts will be enabled, else disabled.  When
        interrupts are disabled, the CPU will be in supervisor mode, otherwise
        interrupts are disabled, the CPU will be in supervisor mode, otherwise
        it is in user mode.  Thus, to execute a context switch, one only
        it is in user mode.  Thus, to execute a context switch, one only
Line 499... Line 533...
        and deals with its context switch.)  Special logic has been added to
        and deals with its context switch.)  Special logic has been added to
        keep the user mode from setting the sleep register and clearing the
        keep the user mode from setting the sleep register and clearing the
        GIE register at the same time, with clearing the GIE register taking
        GIE register at the same time, with clearing the GIE register taking
        precedence.
        precedence.
 
 
The seventh bit is a step bit.  This bit can be
The seventh bit is a step bit.  This bit can be set from supervisor mode only.
        set from supervisor mode only.  After setting this bit, should
        After setting this bit, should the supervisor mode process switch to
        the supervisor mode process switch to user mode, it would then
        user mode, it would then accomplish one instruction in user mode
        accomplish one instruction in user mode before returning to supervisor
        before returning to supervisor mode.  Then, upon return to supervisor
        mode.  Then, upon return to supervisor mode, this bit will
        mode, this bit will be automatically cleared.  This bit has no effect
        be automatically cleared.  This bit has no effect on the CPU while in
        on the CPU while in supervisor mode.
        supervisor mode.
 
 
 
        This functionality was added to enable a userspace debugger
        This functionality was added to enable a userspace debugger
        functionality on a user process, working through supervisor mode
        functionality on a user process, working through supervisor mode
        of course.
        of course.
 
 
Line 537... Line 570...
The tenth bit is a trap bit.  It is set whenever the user requests a soft
The tenth bit is a trap bit.  It is set whenever the user requests a soft
interrupt, and cleared on any return to userspace command.  This allows the
interrupt, and cleared on any return to userspace command.  This allows the
supervisor, in supervisor mode, to determine whether it got to supervisor
supervisor, in supervisor mode, to determine whether it got to supervisor
mode from a trap or from an external interrupt or both.
mode from a trap or from an external interrupt or both.
 
 
These status register bits are summarized in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:ccbits}.
\section{Instruction Format}
\begin{table}
All Zip CPU instructions fit in one of the formats shown in
\begin{center}
Fig.~\ref{fig:iset-format}.
\begin{tabular}{l|l}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
Bit & Meaning \\\hline
\begin{bytefield}[endianness=big]{32}
9 & Soft trap, set on a trap from user mode, cleared when returning to user mode\\\hline
\bitheader{0-31}\\
8 & Illegal instruction error flag \\\hline
\begin{leftwordgroup}{Standard}\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{4}{DR}
7 & Halt on break, to support an external debugger \\\hline
                \bitbox[lrt]{5}{OpCode}
6 & Step, single step the CPU in user mode\\\hline
                \bitbox[lrt]{3}{Cnd}
5 & GIE, or Global Interrupt Enable \\\hline
                \bitbox{1}{0}
4 & Sleep \\\hline
                \bitbox{18}{18-bit Signed Immediate} \\
3 & V, or overflow bit.\\\hline
\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{4}{DR}
2 & N, or negative bit.\\\hline
                \bitbox[lrb]{5}{}
1 & C, or carry bit.\\\hline
                \bitbox[lrb]{3}{}
0 & Z, or zero bit. \\\hline
                \bitbox{1}{1}
 
                \bitbox{4}{BR}
 
                \bitbox{14}{14-bit Signed Immediate}\end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\begin{leftwordgroup}{MOV}\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{4}{DR}
 
                \bitbox[lrt]{5}{5'hf}
 
                \bitbox[lrt]{3}{Cnd}
 
                \bitbox{1}{A}
 
                \bitbox{4}{BR}
 
                \bitbox{1}{B}
 
                \bitbox{13}{13-bit Signed Immediate}\end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\begin{leftwordgroup}{LDI}\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{4}{DR}
 
                \bitbox{4}{4'hb}
 
                \bitbox{23}{23-bit Signed Immediate}\end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\begin{leftwordgroup}{NOOP}\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{3}{3'h7}
 
                \bitbox{1}{}
 
                \bitbox{2}{11}
 
                \bitbox{3}{xxx}
 
                \bitbox{22}{Ignored}
 
                \end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\begin{leftwordgroup}{VLIW}\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox[lrt]{4}{DR}
 
                \bitbox[lrt]{5}{OpCode}
 
                \bitbox[lrt]{3}{Cnd}
 
                \bitbox{1}{0}
 
                \bitbox{4}{Imm.}
 
                \bitbox{14}{---} \\
 
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox[lr]{4}{}
 
                \bitbox[lrb]{5}{}
 
                \bitbox[lr]{3}{}
 
                \bitbox{1}{1}
 
                \bitbox{4}{BR}
 
                \bitbox{14}{---}        \\
 
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox[lrb]{4}{}
 
                \bitbox{4}{4'hb}
 
                \bitbox{1}{}
 
                \bitbox[lrb]{3}{}
 
                \bitbox{5}{5'b Imm}
 
                \bitbox{14}{---}        \\
 
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox{9}{---}
 
                \bitbox[lrt]{3}{Cnd}
 
                \bitbox{5}{---}
 
                \bitbox[lrt]{4}{DR}
 
                \bitbox[lrt]{5}{OpCode}
 
                \bitbox{1}{0}
 
                \bitbox{4}{Imm}
 
                \\
 
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox{9}{---}
 
                \bitbox[lr]{3}{}
 
                \bitbox{5}{---}
 
                \bitbox[lr]{4}{}
 
                \bitbox[lrb]{5}{}
 
                \bitbox{1}{1}
 
                \bitbox{4}{Reg} \\
 
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox{9}{---}
 
                \bitbox[lrb]{3}{}
 
                \bitbox{5}{---}
 
                \bitbox[lrb]{4}{}
 
                \bitbox{4}{4'hb}
 
                \bitbox{1}{}
 
                \bitbox{5}{5'b Imm}
 
                \end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\end{bytefield}
 
\caption{Zip Instruction Set Format}\label{fig:iset-format}
 
\end{center}\end{figure}
 
The basic format is that some operation, defined by the OpCode, is applied
 
if a condition, Cnd, is true in order to produce a result which is placed in
 
the destination register, or DR.  The Load 23--bit signed immediate instruction
 
is different in that it requires no conditions, and uses only a 4-bit opcode.
 
 
 
This is actually a second version of instruction set definition, given certain
 
lessons learned.  For example, the original instruction set had the following
 
problems:
 
\begin{enumerate}
 
\item No opcodes were available for divide or floating point extensions to be
 
        made available.  Although there was space in the instruction set to
 
        add these types of instructions, this instruction space was going to
 
        require extra logic to use.
 
\item The carveouts for instructions such as NOOP and LDIHI/LDILO required
 
        extra logic to process.
 
\item The instruction set wasn't very compact.  One bus operation was required
 
        for every instruction.
 
\end{enumerate}
 
This second version was designed with two criteria.  The first was that the
 
new instruction set needed to be compatible, at the assembly language level,
 
with the previous instruction set.  Thus, it must be able to support all of
 
the previous menumonics and more.  This was achieved with the sole exception
 
that instruction immediates are generally two bits shorter than before.
 
(One bit was lost to the VLIW bit in front, another from changing from 4--bit
 
to 5--bit opcodes.)  Second, the new instruction set needed to be a drop--in
 
replacement for the decoder, modifying nothing else.  This was almost achieved,
 
save for two issues: the ALU unit needed to be replaced since the OpCodes
 
were reordered, and some condition code logic needed to be adjusted since the
 
condition codes were renumbered as well.  In the end, maximum reuse of the
 
existing RTL (Verilog) code was achieved in this upgrade.
 
 
 
As of this second version of the Zip CPU instruction set, the Zip CPU also
 
supports a very long instruction word (VLIW) set of instructions.   These
 
instruction formats pack two instructions into a single instuction word,
 
trading immediate instruction space to do this, but in just about all other
 
respects these are identical to two standard instructions.  Other than
 
instruction format, the only basic difference is that the CPU will not switch
 
to interrupt mode in between the two instructions.  Likewise a new job given
 
to the assembler is that of automatically packing as many instructions as
 
possible into the VLIW format.  Where necessary to place both VLIW instructions
 
on the same line, they will be separated by a vertical bar.
 
 
 
\section{Instruction OpCodes}
 
With a 5--bit opcode field, there are 32--possible instructions as shown in
 
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:iset-opcodes}.
 
\begin{table}\begin{center}
 
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|c|} \hline \rowcolor[gray]{0.85}
 
OpCode & & Instruction &Sets CC \\\hline\hline
 
5'h00 & SUB & Subtract &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h01 & AND & Bitwise And &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h02 & ADD & Add two numbers &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h03 & OR  & Bitwise Or & Y \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h04 & XOR & Bitwise Exclusive Or &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h05 & LSR & Logical Shift Right &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h06 & LSL & Logical Shift Left &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h07 & ASR & Arithmetic Shift Right &   \\\hline
 
5'h08 & LDIHI & Load Immediate High & N \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h09 & LDILO & Load Immediate Low &  \\\hline
 
5'h0a & MPYU & Unsigned 16--bit Multiply &  \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h0b & MPYS & Signed 16--bit Multiply & Y \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h0c & BREV & Bit Reverse &  \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h0d & POPC& Population Count &  \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h0e & ROL & Rotate left &   \\\hline
 
5'h0f & MOV & Move register & N \\\hline
 
5'h10 & CMP & Compare & Y \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h11 & TST & Test (AND w/o setting result) &   \\\hline
 
5'h12 & LOD & Load from memory & N \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h13 & STO & Store a register into memory &  \\\hline\hline
 
5'h14 & DIVU & Divide, unsigned & Y \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h15 & DIVS & Divide, signed &  \\\hline\hline
 
5'h16/7 & LDI & Load 23--bit signed immediate & N \\\hline\hline
 
5'h18 & FPADD & Floating point add &  \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h19 & FPSUB & Floating point subtract &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h1a & FPMPY & Floating point multiply & Y \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h1b & FPDIV & Floating point divide &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h1c & FPCVT & Convert integer to floating point &   \\\cline{1-3}
 
5'h1d & FPINT & Convert to integer &   \\\hline
 
5'h1e & & {\em Reserved for future use} &\\\hline
 
5'h1f & & {\em Reserved for future use} &\\\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Condition Code / Status Register Bits}\label{tbl:ccbits}
\caption{Zip CPU OpCodes}\label{tbl:iset-opcodes}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
 
%
 
Of these opcodes, the {\tt BREV} and {\tt POPC} are experimental, and may be
 
replaced later, and two floating point instruction opcodes are reserved for
 
future use.
 
 
\section{Conditional Instructions}
\section{Conditional Instructions}
Most, although not quite all, instructions may be conditionally executed.  From
Most, although not quite all, instructions may be conditionally executed.
the four condition code flags, eight conditions are defined.  These are shown
The 23--bit load immediate instruction, together with the {\tt NOOP},
in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:conditions}.
{\tt BREAK}, and {\tt LOCK} instructions are the only exception to this rule.
\begin{table}
 
\begin{center}
From the four condition code flags, eight conditions are defined for standard
 
instructions.  These are shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:conditions}.
 
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{l|l|l}
\begin{tabular}{l|l|l}
Code & Mneumonic & Condition \\\hline
Code & Mneumonic & Condition \\\hline
3'h0 & None & Always execute the instruction \\
3'h0 & None & Always execute the instruction \\
3'h1 & {\tt .Z} & Only execute when 'Z' is set \\
3'h1 & {\tt .LT} & Less than ('N' set) \\
3'h2 & {\tt .NE} & Only execute when 'Z' is not set \\
3'h2 & {\tt .Z} & Only execute when 'Z' is set \\
3'h3 & {\tt .GE} & Greater than or equal ('N' not set, 'Z' irrelevant) \\
3'h3 & {\tt .NZ} & Only execute when 'Z' is not set \\
3'h4 & {\tt .GT} & Greater than ('N' not set, 'Z' not set) \\
3'h4 & {\tt .GT} & Greater than ('N' not set, 'Z' not set) \\
3'h5 & {\tt .LT} & Less than ('N' set) \\
3'h5 & {\tt .GE} & Greater than or equal ('N' not set, 'Z' irrelevant) \\
3'h6 & {\tt .C} & Carry set\\
3'h6 & {\tt .C} & Carry set\\
3'h7 & {\tt .V} & Overflow set\\
3'h7 & {\tt .V} & Overflow set\\
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Conditions for conditional operand execution}\label{tbl:conditions}
\caption{Conditions for conditional operand execution}\label{tbl:conditions}
\end{center}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{table}
There is no condition code for less than or equal, not C or not V---there
There is no condition code for less than or equal, not C or not V.  Sorry,
just wasn't enough space in 3--bits.  Conditioning on a non--supported
I ran out of space in 3--bits.  Conditioning on a non--supported condition
condition is still possible, but it will take an extra instruction and a
is still possible, but it will take an extra instruction and a pipeline stall.  (Ex: \hbox{\em (Stall)}; \hbox{\tt TST \$4,CC;} \hbox{\tt STO.NZ R0,(R1)})
pipeline stall.  (Ex: \hbox{\em (Stall)}; \hbox{\tt TST \$4,CC;} \hbox{\tt
As an alternative, the condition may often be reversed, recovering those
STO.NZ R0,(R1)}) As an alternative, it is often possible to reverse the
extra two clocks.  Thus instead of \hbox{\tt CMP Rx,Ry;}
condition, and thus recovering those extra two clocks.  Thus instead of
\hbox{\tt BNV label} you can issue a \hbox{\tt CMP Ry,Rx;} \hbox{\tt BV label}.
\hbox{\tt CMP Rx,Ry;} \hbox{\tt BNV label} you can issue a
 
\hbox{\tt CMP Ry,Rx;} \hbox{\tt BV label}.
 
 
Conditionally executed ALU instructions will not further adjust the
Conditionally executed instructions will not further adjust the
condition codes, with the exception of \hbox{\tt CMP} and \hbox{\tt TST}
condition codes, with the exception of \hbox{\tt CMP} and \hbox{\tt TST}
instructions.   Conditional \hbox{\tt CMP} or \hbox{\tt TST} instructions
instructions.   Conditional \hbox{\tt CMP} or \hbox{\tt TST} instructions
will adjust conditions whenever their conditionals are true.  In this way,
will adjust conditions whenever they are executed.  In this way,
multiple conditions may be evaluated without branches.  For example, to do
multiple conditions may be evaluated without branches.  For example, to do
something if \hbox{\tt R0} is one and \hbox{\tt R1} is two, one might try
something if \hbox{\tt R0} is one and \hbox{\tt R1} is two, one might try
code such as Tbl.~\ref{tbl:dbl-condition}.
code such as Tbl.~\ref{tbl:dbl-condition}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{l}
\begin{tabular}{l}
Line 604... Line 785...
        {\tt STO.Z R0,(R2)} \\
        {\tt STO.Z R0,(R2)} \\
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{An example of a double conditional}\label{tbl:dbl-condition}
\caption{An example of a double conditional}\label{tbl:dbl-condition}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
 
 
\section{Traditional Interrupt Handling}
In the case of VLIW instructions, only four conditions are defined as shown
 
in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:vliw-conditions}.
 
\begin{table}\begin{center}
 
\begin{tabular}{l|l|l}
 
Code & Mneumonic & Condition \\\hline
 
2'h0 & None & Always execute the instruction \\
 
2'h1 & {\tt .LT} & Less than ('N' set) \\
 
2'h2 & {\tt .Z} & Only execute when 'Z' is set \\
 
2'h3 & {\tt .NZ} & Only execute when 'Z' is not set \\
 
\end{tabular}
 
\caption{VLIW Conditions}\label{tbl:vliw-conditions}
 
\end{center}\end{table}
 
Further, the first bit is given a special meaning.  If the first bit is set,
 
the conditions apply to the second half of the instruction, otherwise the
 
conditions will only apply to the first half of a conditional instruction.
 
 
\section{Operand B}
\section{Operand B}
Many instruction forms have a 21-bit source ``Operand B'' associated with them.
Many instruction forms have a 19-bit source ``Operand B'' associated with them.
This Operand B is either equal to a register plus a signed immediate offset,
This ``Operand B'' is shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:iset-format} as part of the
or an immediate offset by itself.  This value is encoded as shown in
standard instructions.  This Operand B is either equal to a register plus a
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:opb}.
14--bit signed immediate offset, or an 18--bit signed immediate offset by
\begin{table}\begin{center}
itself.  This value is encoded as shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:opb}.
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|}\hline
\begin{table}\begin{center}
Bit 20 & 19 \ldots 16 & 15 \ldots 0 \\\hline
\begin{bytefield}[endianness=big]{19}
1'b0 & \multicolumn{2}{l|}{20--bit Signed Immediate value} \\\hline
\bitheader{0-18}  \\
1'b1 & 4-bit Register & 16--bit Signed immediate offset \\\hline
\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{18}{18-bit Signed Immediate} \\
\end{tabular}
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox{4}{Reg}\bitbox{14}{14-bit Signed Immediate}
 
\end{bytefield}
\caption{Bit allocation for Operand B}\label{tbl:opb}
\caption{Bit allocation for Operand B}\label{tbl:opb}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
 
 
Sixteen and twenty bit immediate values don't make sense for all instructions.
Fourteen and eighteen bit immediate values don't make sense for all
For example, what is the point of a 20--bit immediate when executing a 16--bit
instructions.  For example, what is the point of an 18--bit immediate when
multiply?  Likewise, why have a 16--bit immediate when adding to a logical
executing a 16--bit multiply?  Or a 16--bit load--immediate?  In these cases,
or arithmetic shift?  In these cases, the extra bits are reserved for future
the extra bits are simply ignored.
instruction possibilities.
 
 
VLIW instructions still use the same operand B, only there was no room for any
 
instruction plus immediate addressing.  Therefore, VLIW instructions have either
 
a register or a 4--bit signed immediate as their operand B.  The only exception
 
is the load immediate instruction, which permits a 5--bit signed operand
 
B.\footnote{Although the space exists to extend this VLIW load immediate
 
instruction to six bits, the 5--bit limit was chosen to simplify the
 
disassembler.  This may change in the future.}
 
 
\section{Address Modes}
\section{Address Modes}
The Zip CPU supports two addressing modes: register plus immediate, and
The Zip CPU supports two addressing modes: register plus immediate, and
immediate address.  Addresses are therefore encoded in the same fashion as
immediate address.  Addresses are therefore encoded in the same fashion as
Operand B's, shown above.
Operand B's, shown above.  Practically, the VLIW instruction set only offers
 
register addressing, necessitating a non--VLIW instruction for most memory
 
operations.
 
 
A lot of long hard thought was put into whether to allow pre/post increment
A lot of long hard thought was put into whether to allow pre/post increment
and decrement addressing modes.  Finding no way to use these operators without
and decrement addressing modes.  Finding no way to use these operators without
taking two or more clocks per instruction,\footnote{The two clocks figure
taking two or more clocks per instruction,\footnote{The two clocks figure
comes from the design of the register set, allowing only one write per clock.
comes from the design of the register set, allowing only one write per clock.
Line 649... Line 854...
the CPU needs access to non--supervisory registers while in supervisory mode.
the CPU needs access to non--supervisory registers while in supervisory mode.
Therefore, the MOV instruction is special and offers access to these registers
Therefore, the MOV instruction is special and offers access to these registers
\ldots when in supervisory mode.  To keep the compiler simple, the extra bits
\ldots when in supervisory mode.  To keep the compiler simple, the extra bits
are ignored in non-supervisory mode (as though they didn't exist), rather than
are ignored in non-supervisory mode (as though they didn't exist), rather than
being mapped to new instructions or additional capabilities.  The bits
being mapped to new instructions or additional capabilities.  The bits
indicating which register set each register lies within are the A-Usr and
indicating which register set each register lies within are the A-User, marked
B-Usr bits.  When set to a one, these refer to a user mode register.  When set
`A' in Fig.~\ref{fig:iset-format}, and B-User bits, marked as `B'.  When set
to a zero, these refer to a register in the current mode, whether user or
to a one, these refer to a user mode register.  When set to a zero, these
supervisor.  Further, because a load immediate instruction exists, there is no
refer to a register in the current mode, whether user or supervisor.  Further,
move capability between an immediate and a register: all moves come from either
because a load immediate instruction exists, there is no move capability
a register or a register plus an offset.
between an immediate and a register: all moves come from either a register or
 
a register plus an offset.
This actually leads to a bit of a problem: since the MOV instruction encodes
 
which register set each register is coming from or moving to, how shall a
This actually leads to a bit of a problem: since the {\tt MOV} instruction
compiler or assembler know how to compile a MOV instruction without knowing
encodes which register set each register is coming from or moving to, how shall
 
a compiler or assembler know how to compile a MOV instruction without knowing
the mode of the CPU at the time?  For this reason, the compiler will assume
the mode of the CPU at the time?  For this reason, the compiler will assume
all MOV registers are supervisor registers, and display them as normal.
all MOV registers are supervisor registers, and display them as normal.
Anything with the user bit set will be treated as a user register.  The CPU
Anything with the user bit set will be treated as a user register and displayed
will quietly ignore the supervisor bits while in user mode, and anything
special.  Since the CPU quietly ignores the supervisor bits while in user mode,
marked as a user register will always be valid.
anything marked as a user register will always be specific.
 
 
\section{Multiply Operations}
\section{Multiply Operations}
The Zip CPU supports two Multiply operations, a 16x16 bit signed multiply
The Zip CPU supports two Multiply operations, a 16x16 bit signed multiply
({\tt MPYS}) and a 16x16 bit unsigned multiply ({\tt MPYU}).  In both
({\tt MPYS}) and a 16x16 bit unsigned multiply ({\tt MPYU}).  A 32--bit
cases, the operand is a register plus a 16-bit immediate, subject to the
multiply, should it be desired, needs to be created via software from this
rule that the register cannot be the PC or CC registers.  The PC register
16x16 bit multiply.
field has been stolen to create a multiply by immediate instruction.  The
 
CC register field is reserved.
\section{Divide Unit}
 
The Zip CPU also has a divide unit which can be built alongside the ALU.
 
This divide unit provides the Zip CPU with its first two instructions that
 
cannot be executed in a single cycle: {\tt DIVS}, or signed divide, and
 
{\tt DIVU}, the unsigned divide.  These are both 32--bit divide instructions,
 
dividing one 32--bit number by another.  In this case, the Operand B field,
 
whether it be register or register plus immediate, constitutes the denominator,
 
whereas the numerator is given by the other register.
 
 
 
The Divide is also a multi--clock instruction.  While the divide is running,
 
the ALU, memory unit, and floating point unit (if installed) will be idle.
 
Once the divide completes, other units may continue.
 
 
 
Of course, divides can have errors: division by zero.  In the case of division
 
by zero, an exception will be caused that will send the CPU either from
 
user mode to supervisor mode, or halt the CPU if it is already in supervisor
 
mode.
 
 
\section{Floating Point}
\section{NOOP, BREAK, and Bus Lock Instruction}
The Zip CPU does not (yet) support floating point operations.  However, the
Three instructions are not listed in the opcode list in
instruction set reserves two possibilities for future floating point
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:iset-opcodes}, yet fit in the NOOP type instruction format of
operations.
Fig.~\ref{fig:iset-format}.  These are the {\tt NOOP}, {\tt Break}, and
 
bus {\tt LOCK} instructions.  These are encoded according to
 
Fig.~\ref{fig:iset-noop}, and have the following meanings:
 
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
 
\begin{bytefield}[endianness=big]{32}
 
\bitheader{0-31}\\
 
\begin{leftwordgroup}{NOOP}
 
\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{3}{3'h7}\bitbox{1}{}
 
        \bitbox{2}{11}\bitbox{3}{001}\bitbox{22}{Ignored} \\
 
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox{3}{3'h7}\bitbox{1}{}
 
        \bitbox{2}{11}\bitbox{3}{001}\bitbox{22}{---} \\
 
\bitbox{1}{1}\bitbox{9}{---}\bitbox{3}{---}\bitbox{5}{---}
 
        \bitbox{3}{3'h7}\bitbox{1}{}\bitbox{2}{11}\bitbox{3}{001}
 
        \bitbox{5}{Ignored}
 
                \end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\begin{leftwordgroup}{BREAK}
 
\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{3}{3'h7}
 
                \bitbox{1}{}\bitbox{2}{11}\bitbox{3}{010}\bitbox{22}{Ignored}
 
                \end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\begin{leftwordgroup}{LOCK}
 
\bitbox{1}{0}\bitbox{3}{3'h7}
 
                \bitbox{1}{}\bitbox{2}{11}\bitbox{3}{100}\bitbox{22}{Ignored}
 
                \end{leftwordgroup} \\
 
\end{bytefield}
 
\caption{NOOP/Break/LOCK Instruction Format}\label{fig:iset-noop}
 
\end{center}\end{figure}
 
 
The first floating point operation hole in the instruction set involves
The {\tt NOOP} instruction is just that: an instruction that does not perform
setting a proposed (but non-existent) floating point bit in the CC register.
any operation.  While many other instructions, such as a move from a register to
The next instruction
itself, could also fit these roles, only the NOOP instruction guarantees that
would then simply interpret its operands as floating point instructions.
it will not stall waiting for a register to be available.   For this reason,
Not all instructions, however, have floating point equivalents.  Further, the
it gets its own place in the instruction set.
immediate fields do not apply in floating point mode, and must be set to
 
zero.  Not all instructions make sense as floating point operations.
The {\tt BREAK} instruction is useful for creating a debug instruction that
Therefore, only the CMP, SUB, ADD, and MPY instructions may be issued as
will halt the CPU without executing.  If in user mode, depending upon the
floating point instructions.  Other instructions allow the examining of the
setting of the break enable bit, it will either switch to supervisor mode or
floating point bit in the CC register.  In all cases, the floating point bit
halt the CPU--depending upon where the user wishes to do his debugging.
is cleared one instruction after it is set.
 
 
Finally, the {\tt LOCK} instruction was added in order to make a test and
The other possibility for floating point operations involves exploiting the
set multi--CPU operation possible.  Following a LOCK instruction, the next
hole in the instruction set that the NOOP and BREAK instructions reside within.
two instructions, if they are memory LOD/STO instructions, will execute without
These two instructions use 24--bits of address space, when only a single bit
dropping the wishbone {\tt CYC} line between the instructions.   Thus a
is necessary.  A simple adjustment to this space could create instructions
{\tt LOCK} followed by {\tt LOD (Rx),Ry} and a {\tt STO Rz,(Rx)}, where Rz
with 4--bit register addresses for each register, a 3--bit field for
is initially set, can be used to set an address while guaranteeing that Ry
conditional execution, and a 2--bit field for which operation.
was the value before setting the address to Rz.   This is a useful instruction
In this fashion, such a floating point capability would only fill 13--bits of
while trying to achieve concurrency among multiple CPU's.
the 24--bit field, still leaving lots of room for expansion.
 
 
 
In both cases, the Zip CPU would support 32--bit single precision floats
 
only, since other choices would complicate the pipeline.
 
 
 
The current architecture does not support a floating point not-implemented
 
interrupt.  Any soft floating point emulation must be done deliberately.
 
 
 
\section{Native Instructions}
 
The instruction set for the Zip CPU is summarized in
 
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:zip-instructions}.
 
\begin{table}\begin{center}
 
\begin{tabular}{|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|l|c|}\hline
 
\rowcolor[gray]{0.85}
 
Op Code & \multicolumn{8}{c|}{31\ldots24} & \multicolumn{8}{c|}{23\ldots 16}
 
        & \multicolumn{8}{c|}{15\ldots 8} & \multicolumn{8}{c|}{7\ldots 0}
 
        & Sets CC? \\\hline\hline
 
{\tt CMP(Sub)} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h0}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
 
                & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt TST(And)} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h1}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt MOV} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h2}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & A-Usr
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{B-Reg}
 
                & B-Usr
 
                & \multicolumn{15}{l|}{15'bit signed offset}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt LODI} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h3}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'bit Signed Immediate}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt NOOP} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
 
                & \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'h00}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt BREAK} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
 
                & \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'h01}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\em Reserved} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
 
                & \multicolumn{24}{l|}{24'bits, but not 0 or 1.}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt LODIHI }& \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & 1'b1
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Immediate}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt LODILO} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & 1'b0
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Immediate}
 
                & \\\hline
 
16-b {\tt MPYU} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & 1'b0 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
 
                & Yes \\\hline
 
16-b {\tt MPYU}(I) & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & 1'b0 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
 
                & \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
 
                & Yes \\\hline
 
16-b {\tt MPYS} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & 1'b1 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
 
                & Yes \\\hline
 
16-b {\tt MPYS}(I) & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h4}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & 1'b1 & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
 
                & \multicolumn{16}{l|}{16-bit Offset}
 
                & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt ROL} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h5}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, truncated to low order 5 bits}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt LOD} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h6}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B address}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt STO} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h7}
 
                & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{D. Reg}
 
                & \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
                & \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B address}
 
                & \\\hline
 
{\tt SUB} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h8}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt AND} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'h9}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt ADD} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'ha}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt OR} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hb}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt XOR} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hc}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt LSL/ASL} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hd}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, imm. truncated to 6 bits}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt ASR} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'he}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, imm. truncated to 6 bits}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
{\tt LSR} & \multicolumn{4}{l|}{4'hf}
 
        &       \multicolumn{4}{l|}{R. Reg}
 
        &       \multicolumn{3}{l|}{Cond.}
 
        &       \multicolumn{21}{l|}{Operand B, imm. truncated to 6 bits}
 
        & Yes \\\hline
 
\end{tabular}
 
\caption{Zip CPU Instruction Set}\label{tbl:zip-instructions}
 
\end{center}\end{table}
 
 
 
As you can see, there's lots of room for instruction set expansion.  The
\section{Floating Point}
NOOP and BREAK instructions are the only instructions within one particular
Although the Zip CPU does not (yet) have a floating point unit, the current
24--bit hole.  The rest of this space is reserved for future enhancements.
instruction set offers eight opcodes for floating point operations, and treats
 
floating point exceptions like divide by zero errors.  Once this unit is built
 
and integrated together with the rest of the CPU, the Zip CPU will support
 
32--bit floating point instructions natively.  Any 64--bit floating point
 
instructions will still need to be emulated in software.
 
 
\section{Derived Instructions}
\section{Derived Instructions}
The Zip CPU supports many other common instructions, but not all of them
The Zip CPU supports many other common instructions, but not all of them
are single cycle instructions.  The derived instruction tables,
are single cycle instructions.  The derived instruction tables,
Tbls.~\ref{tbl:derived-1}, \ref{tbl:derived-2}, \ref{tbl:derived-3}
Tbls.~\ref{tbl:derived-1}, \ref{tbl:derived-2}, \ref{tbl:derived-3}
Line 868... Line 972...
\parbox[t]{1.4in}{\tt ADD Ra,Rx\\ADDC Rb,Ry}
\parbox[t]{1.4in}{\tt ADD Ra,Rx\\ADDC Rb,Ry}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt Add Ra,Rx\\ADD.C \$1,Ry\\Add Rb,Ry}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt Add Ra,Rx\\ADD.C \$1,Ry\\Add Rb,Ry}
        & Add with carry \\\hline
        & Add with carry \\\hline
{\tt BRA.Cond +/-\$Addr}
{\tt BRA.Cond +/-\$Addr}
        & \hbox{\tt MOV.cond \$Addr+PC,PC}
        & \hbox{\tt MOV.cond \$Addr+PC,PC}
        & Branch or jump on condition.  Works for 15--bit
        & Branch or jump on condition.  Works for 13--bit
                signed address offsets.\\\hline
                signed address offsets.\\\hline
{\tt BRA.Cond +/-\$Addr}
{\tt BRA.Cond +/-\$Addr}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LDI \$Addr,Rx \\ ADD.cond Rx,PC}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LDI \$Addr,Rx \\ ADD.cond Rx,PC}
        & Branch/jump on condition.  Works for
        & Branch/jump on condition.  Works for
        23 bit address offsets, but costs a register, an extra instruction,
        23 bit address offsets, but costs a register, an extra instruction,
Line 894... Line 998...
        & Exchanges the top and bottom 16'bit words of Rx \\\hline
        & Exchanges the top and bottom 16'bit words of Rx \\\hline
{\tt HALT }
{\tt HALT }
        & {\tt Or \$SLEEP,CC}
        & {\tt Or \$SLEEP,CC}
        & This only works when issued in interrupt/supervisor mode.  In user
        & This only works when issued in interrupt/supervisor mode.  In user
        mode this is simply a wait until interrupt instruction. \\\hline
        mode this is simply a wait until interrupt instruction. \\\hline
{\tt INT } & {\tt LDI \$0,CC} &  \\\hline
{\tt INT } & {\tt LDI \$0,CC} & This is also known as a trap instruction\\\hline
{\tt IRET}
{\tt IRET}
        & {\tt OR \$GIE,CC}
        & {\tt OR \$GIE,CC}
        & Also known as an RTU instruction (Return to Userspace) \\\hline
        & Also known as an RTU instruction (Return to Userspace) \\\hline
{\tt JMP R6+\$Addr}
{\tt JMP R6+\$Addr}
        & {\tt MOV \$Addr(R6),PC}
        & {\tt MOV \$Addr(R6),PC}
        & \\\hline
        & \\\hline
 
{\tt LJMP \$Addr}
 
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LOD (PC),PC \\ {\em Address }}
 
        & Although this only works for an unconditional jump, and it only
 
        works in a Von Neumann architecture, this instruction combination makes
 
        for a nice combination that can be adjusted by a linker at a later
 
        time.\\\hline
{\tt JSR PC+\$Addr}
{\tt JSR PC+\$Addr}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt SUB \$1,SP \\\
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt MOV \$1+PC,R0 \\ MOV \$addr+PC,PC}
        MOV \$3+PC,R0 \\
        & This is similar to the jump and link instructions from other
        STO R0,1(SP) \\
        architectures, save only that it requires a specific link
        MOV \$Addr+PC,PC \\
        instruction, also known as the {\tt MOV} instruction on the
        ADD \$1,SP}
        left.\\\hline
        & Jump to Subroutine. Note the required cleanup instruction after
 
        returning.  This could easily be turned into a three instruction
 
        operand, removing the preliminary stack instruction before and
 
        the cleanup after, by adjusting how any stack frame was built for
 
        this routine to include space at the top of the stack for the PC.
 
        Note also that jumping to a subroutine costs a copy register, {\tt R0}
 
        in this case.
 
        \\\hline
 
{\tt JSR PC+\$Addr  }
 
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt MOV \$3+PC,R12 \\ MOV \$addr+PC,PC}
 
        &This is the high speed
 
        version of a subroutine call, necessitating a register to hold the
 
        last PC address.  In its favor, this method doesn't suffer the
 
        mandatory memory access of the other approach. \\\hline
 
{\tt LDI.l \$val,Rx }
 
        & \parbox[t]{1.8in}{\tt LDIHI (\$val$>>$16)\&0x0ffff, Rx \\
 
                        LDILO (\$val\&0x0ffff),Rx}
 
        & Sadly, there's not enough instruction
 
                space to load a complete immediate value into any register.
 
                Therefore, fully loading any register takes two cycles.
 
                The LDIHI (load immediate high) and LDILO (load immediate low)
 
                instructions have been created to facilitate this. \\\hline
 
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Derived Instructions}\label{tbl:derived-1}
\caption{Derived Instructions}\label{tbl:derived-1}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
Mapped & Actual  & Notes \\\hline
Mapped & Actual  & Notes \\\hline
 
{\tt LDI.l \$val,Rx }
 
        & \parbox[t]{1.8in}{\tt LDIHI (\$val$>>$16)\&0x0ffff, Rx \\
 
                        LDILO (\$val\&0x0ffff),Rx}
 
        & \parbox[t]{3.0in}{Sadly, there's not enough instruction
 
                space to load a complete immediate value into any register.
 
                Therefore, fully loading any register takes two cycles.
 
                The LDIHI (load immediate high) and LDILO (load immediate low)
 
                instructions have been created to facilitate this.
 
                \\
 
        This is also the appropriate means for setting a register value
 
        to an arbitrary 32--bit value in a post--assembly link
 
        operation.}\\\hline
{\tt LOD.b \$addr,Rx}
{\tt LOD.b \$addr,Rx}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt %
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt %
        LDI     \$addr,Ra \\
        LDI     \$addr,Ra \\
        LDI     \$addr,Rb \\
        LDI     \$addr,Rb \\
        LSR     \$2,Ra \\
        LSR     \$2,Ra \\
Line 981... Line 1081...
        operations have consequences in that they might stall the bus if
        operations have consequences in that they might stall the bus if
        Rx isn't ready yet.  For this reason, we have a dedicated NOOP
        Rx isn't ready yet.  For this reason, we have a dedicated NOOP
        instruction. \\\hline
        instruction. \\\hline
{\tt NOT Rx } & {\tt XOR \$-1,Rx } & \\\hline
{\tt NOT Rx } & {\tt XOR \$-1,Rx } & \\\hline
{\tt POP Rx }
{\tt POP Rx }
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LOD \$1(SP),Rx \\ ADD \$1,SP}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LOD \$(SP),Rx \\ ADD \$1,SP}
        & Note
        & \\\hline
        that for interrupt purposes, one can never depend upon the value at
 
        (SP).  Hence you read from it, then increment it, lest having
 
        incremented it first something then comes along and writes to that
 
        value before you can read the result. \\\hline
 
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-2}
\caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-2}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
{\tt PUSH Rx}
{\tt PUSH Rx}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{SUB \$1,SP \\
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\hbox{\tt SUB \$1,SP}
        STO Rx,\$1(SP)}
        \hbox{\tt STO Rx,\$(SP)}}
        & Note that for pipelined operation, it helps to coalesce all the
        & Note that for pipelined operation, it helps to coalesce all the
        {\tt SUB}'s into one command, and place the {\tt STO}'s right
        {\tt SUB}'s into one command, and place the {\tt STO}'s right
        after each other.\\\hline
        after each other.  Further, to avoid a pipeline stall, the
 
        immediate value for the store must be zero.
 
        \\\hline
{\tt PUSH Rx-Ry}
{\tt PUSH Rx-Ry}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt SUB \$n,SP \\
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt SUB \$$n$,SP \\
        STO Rx,\$n(SP)
        STO Rx,\$(SP)
        \ldots \\
        \ldots \\
        STO Ry,\$1(SP)}
        STO Ry,\$$\left(n-1\right)$(SP)}
        & Multiple pushes at once only need the single subtract from the
        & Multiple pushes at once only need the single subtract from the
        stack pointer.  This derived instruction is analogous to a similar one
        stack pointer.  This derived instruction is analogous to a similar one
        on the Motoroloa 68k architecture, although the Zip Assembler
        on the Motoroloa 68k architecture, although the Zip Assembler
        does not support this instruction (yet).  This instruction
        does not support this instruction (yet).  This instruction
        also supports pipelined memory access.\\\hline
        also supports pipelined memory access.\\\hline
{\tt RESET}
{\tt RESET}
        & \parbox[t]{1in}{\tt STO \$1,\$watchdog(R12)\\NOOP\\NOOP}
        & \parbox[t]{1in}{\tt STO \$1,\$watchdog(R12)\\NOOP\\NOOP}
        & This depends upon the peripheral base address being
        & This depends upon the peripheral base address being
        in R12.
        preloaded into R12.
 
 
        Another opportunity might be to jump to the reset address from within
        Another opportunity might be to jump to the reset address from within
        supervisor mode.\\\hline
        supervisor mode.\\\hline
{\tt RET} & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LOD \$1(SP),PC}
{\tt RET} & {\tt MOV R0,PC}
        & Note that this depends upon the calling context to clean up the
        & This depends upon the form of the {\tt JSR} given on the previous
        stack, as outlined for the JSR instruction.  \\\hline
        page that stores the return address into R0.
{\tt RET} & {\tt MOV R12,PC}
 
        & This is the high(er) speed version, that doesn't touch the stack.
 
        As such, it doesn't suffer a stall on memory read/write to the stack.
 
        \\\hline
        \\\hline
{\tt STEP Rr,Rt}
{\tt STEP Rr,Rt}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LSR \$1,Rr \\ XOR.C Rt,Rr}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LSR \$1,Rr \\ XOR.C Rt,Rr}
        & Step a Galois implementation of a Linear Feedback Shift Register, Rr,
        & Step a Galois implementation of a Linear Feedback Shift Register, Rr,
                using taps Rt \\\hline
                using taps Rt \\\hline
Line 1049... Line 1144...
        32-bit word address. This also limits the address space
        32-bit word address. This also limits the address space
        of character accesses from 16 MB down to 4MB.F
        of character accesses from 16 MB down to 4MB.F
        Further, this instruction implies a byte ordering,
        Further, this instruction implies a byte ordering,
        such as big or little endian.} \\\hline
        such as big or little endian.} \\\hline
{\tt SWAP Rx,Ry }
{\tt SWAP Rx,Ry }
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt XOR Ry,Rx \\ XOR Rx,Ry \\ XOR Ry,Rx}
        XOR Ry,Rx \\
 
        XOR Rx,Ry \\
 
        XOR Ry,Rx}
 
        & While no extra registers are needed, this example
        & While no extra registers are needed, this example
        does take 3-clocks. \\\hline
        does take 3-clocks. \\\hline
 
\end{tabular}
 
\caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-3}
 
\end{center}\end{table}
 
\begin{table}\begin{center}
 
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
{\tt TRAP \#X}
{\tt TRAP \#X}
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LDI \$x,R0 \\ AND \~\$GIE,CC }
        & \parbox[t]{1.5in}{\tt LDI \$x,R0 \\ AND \~\$GIE,CC }
        & This works because whenever a user lowers the \$GIE flag, it sets
        & This works because whenever a user lowers the \$GIE flag, it sets
        a TRAP bit within the CC register.  Therefore, upon entering the
        a TRAP bit within the CC register.  Therefore, upon entering the
        supervisor state, the CPU only need check this bit to know that it
        supervisor state, the CPU only need check this bit to know that it
        got there via a TRAP.  The trap could be made conditional by making
        got there via a TRAP.  The trap could be made conditional by making
        the LDI and the AND conditional.  In that case, the assembler would
        the LDI and the AND conditional.  In that case, the assembler would
        quietly turn the LDI instruction into an LDILO and LDIHI pair,
        quietly turn the LDI instruction into an LDILO and LDIHI pair,
        but the effect would be the same. \\\hline
        but the effect would be the same. \\\hline
\end{tabular}
{\tt TS Rx,Ry,(Rz)}
\caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-3}
        & \hbox{\tt LDI 1,Rx}
\end{center}\end{table}
                \hbox{\tt LOCK}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
                \hbox{\tt LOD (Rz),Ry}
\begin{tabular}{p{1.4in}p{1.5in}p{3in}}\\\hline
                \hbox{\tt STO Rx,(Rz)}
 
        & A test and set instruction.  The {\tt LOCK} instruction insures
 
        that the next two instructions lock the bus between the instructions,
 
        so no one else can use it.  Thus guarantees that the operation is
 
        atomic.
 
        \\\hline
{\tt TST Rx}
{\tt TST Rx}
        & {\tt TST \$-1,Rx}
        & {\tt TST \$-1,Rx}
        & Set the condition codes based upon Rx.  Could also do a CMP \$0,Rx,
        & Set the condition codes based upon Rx.  Could also do a CMP \$0,Rx,
        ADD \$0,Rx, SUB \$0,Rx, etc, AND \$-1,Rx, etc.  The TST and CMP
        ADD \$0,Rx, SUB \$0,Rx, etc, AND \$-1,Rx, etc.  The TST and CMP
        approaches won't stall future pipeline stages looking for the value
        approaches won't stall future pipeline stages looking for the value
        of Rx. \\\hline
        of Rx. (Future versions of the assembler may shorten this to a
 
        {\tt TST Rx} instruction.)\\\hline
{\tt WAIT}
{\tt WAIT}
        & {\tt Or \$GIE | \$SLEEP,CC}
        & {\tt Or \$GIE | \$SLEEP,CC}
        & Wait until the next interrupt, then jump to supervisor/interrupt
        & Wait until the next interrupt, then jump to supervisor/interrupt
        mode.
        mode.
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-4}
\caption{Derived Instructions, continued}\label{tbl:derived-4}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
 
 
 
\section{Interrupt Handling}
 
The Zip CPU does not maintain any interrupt vector tables.  If an interrupt
 
takes place, the CPU simply switches to interrupt mode.  The supervisor code
 
continues in this interrupt mode from where it left off before, after
 
executing a return to userspace {\tt RTU} instruction.
 
 
 
At this point, the supervisor code needs to determine first whether an
 
interrupt has occurred, and then whether it is in interrupt mode due to
 
an exception and handle each case appropriately.
 
 
\section{Pipeline Stages}
\section{Pipeline Stages}
As mentioned in the introduction, and highlighted in Fig.~\ref{fig:cpu},
As mentioned in the introduction, and highlighted in Fig.~\ref{fig:cpu},
the Zip CPU supports a five stage pipeline.
the Zip CPU supports a five stage pipeline.
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf Prefetch}: Reads instruction from memory and into a cache, if so
\item {\bf Prefetch}: Reads instruction from memory and into a cache, if so
        configured.  This
        configured.  This
        stage is actually pipelined itself, and so it will stall if the PC
        stage is actually pipelined itself, and so it will stall if the PC
        ever changes.  Stalls are also created here if the instruction isn't
        ever changes.  Stalls are also created here if the instruction isn't
        in the prefetch cache.
        in the prefetch cache.
 
 
        The Zip CPU supports one of two prefetch methods, depending upon a flag
        The Zip CPU supports one of three prefetch methods, depending upon a
        set at build time within the {\tt zipcpu.v} file.  The simplest is a
        flag set at build time within the {\tt cpudefs.v} file.  The simplest
        non--cached implementation of a prefetch.  This implementation is
        is a non--cached implementation of a prefetch.  This implementation is
        fairly small, and ideal for
        fairly small, and ideal for users of the Zip CPU who need the extra
        users of the Zip CPU who need the extra space on the FPGA fabric.
        space on the FPGA fabric.  However, because this non--cached version
        However, because this non--cached version has no cache, the maximum
        has no cache, the maximum number of instructions per clock is limited
        number of instructions per clock is limited to about one per five.
        to about one per five.
 
 
        The second prefetch module is a pipelined prefetch with a cache.  This
        The second prefetch module is a pipelined prefetch with a cache.  This
        module tries to keep the instruction address within a window of valid
        module tries to keep the instruction address within a window of valid
        instruction addresses.  While effective, it is not a traditional
        instruction addresses.  While effective, it is not a traditional
        cache implementation.  One unique feature of this cache implementation,
        cache implementation.  One unique feature of this cache implementation,
        however, is that it can be cleared in a single clock.  A disappointing
        however, is that it can be cleared in a single clock.  A disappointing
        feature, though, was that it needs an extra internal pipeline stage
        feature, though, was that it needs an extra internal pipeline stage
        to be implemented.
        to be implemented.
 
 
\item {\bf Decode}: Decodes an instruction into op code, register(s) to read,
        The third prefetch and cache module implements a more traditional cache.
        and immediate offset.  This stage also determines whether the flags will
        While the resulting code tends to be twice as fast as the pipelined
        be set or whether the result will be written back.
        cache architecture, this implementation uses a large amount of
 
        distributed FPGA RAM to be successful.  This then inflates the Zip CPU's
 
        FPGA usage statistics.
 
 
 
\item {\bf Decode}: Decodes an instruction into OpCode, register(s) to read,
 
        and immediate offset.  This stage also determines whether the flags
 
        will be set or whether the result will be written back.
 
 
\item {\bf Read Operands}: Read registers and apply any immediate values to
\item {\bf Read Operands}: Read registers and apply any immediate values to
        them.  There is no means of detecting or flagging arithmetic overflow
        them.  There is no means of detecting or flagging arithmetic overflow
        or carry when adding the immediate to the operand.  This stage will
        or carry when adding the immediate to the operand.  This stage will
        stall if any source operand is pending.
        stall if any source operand is pending.
\item Split into two tracks: An {\bf ALU} which will accomplish a simple
 
        instruction, and the {\bf MemOps} stage which handles {\tt LOD} (load)
\item Split into one of four tracks: An {\bf ALU} track which will accomplish
        and {\tt STO} (store) instructions.
        a simple instruction, the {\bf MemOps} stage which handles {\tt LOD}
 
        (load) and {\tt STO} (store) instructions, the {\bf divide} unit,
 
        and the {\bf floating point} unit.
        \begin{itemize}
        \begin{itemize}
        \item Loads will stall the entire pipeline until complete.
        \item Loads will stall instructions in the decode stage until the
        \item Condition codes are available upon completion of the ALU stage
                entire pipeline until complete, lest a register be read in
        \item Issuing an instruction to the memory unit while the memory unit
                the read operands stage only to be updated unseen by the
                is busy will stall the entire pipeline.  If the bus deadlocks,
                Load.
                only a reset will release the CPU.  (Watchdog timer, anyone?)
        \item Condition codes are available upon completion of the ALU,
        \item The Zip CPU currently has no means of reading and acting on any
                divide, or FPU stage.
        error conditions on the bus.
        \item Issuing a non--pipelined memory instruction to the memory unit
 
                while the memory unit is busy will stall the entire pipeline.
        \end{itemize}
        \end{itemize}
\item {\bf Write-Back}: Conditionally write back the result to the register
\item {\bf Write-Back}: Conditionally write back the result to the register
        set, applying the condition.  This routine is bi-entrant: either the
        set, applying the condition.  This routine is quad-entrant: either the
        memory or the simple instruction may request a register write.
        ALU, the memory, the divide, or the FPU may write back a register.
 
        The only design rule is that no more than a single register may be
 
        written back in any given clock.
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}
 
 
The Zip CPU does not support out of order execution.  Therefore, if the memory
The Zip CPU does not support out of order execution.  Therefore, if the memory
unit stalls, every other instruction stalls.  Memory stores, however, can take
unit stalls, every other instruction stalls.  The same is true for divide or
place concurrently with ALU operations, although memory reads (loads) cannot.
floating point instructions--all other instructions will stall while waiting
 
for these to complete.  Memory stores, however, can take place concurrently
 
with non--memory operations, although memory reads (loads) cannot.
 
 
\section{Pipeline Stalls}
\section{Pipeline Stalls}
The processing pipeline can and will stall for a variety of reasons.  Some of
The processing pipeline can and will stall for a variety of reasons.  Some of
these are obvious, some less so.  These reasons are listed below:
these are obvious, some less so.  These reasons are listed below:
\begin{itemize}
\begin{itemize}
\item When the prefetch cache is exhausted
\item When the prefetch cache is exhausted
 
 
This reason should be obvious.  If the prefetch cache doesn't have the
This reason should be obvious.  If the prefetch cache doesn't have the
instruction in memory, the entire pipeline must stall until enough of the
instruction in memory, the entire pipeline must stall until an instruction
prefetch cache is loaded to support the next instruction.
can be made ready.  In the case of the {\tt pipefetch} windowed approach
 
to the prefetch cache, this means the pipeline will stall until enough of the
 
prefetch cache is loaded to support the next instruction.  In the case
 
of the more traditional {\tt pfcache} approach, the entire cache line must
 
fill before instruction execution can continue.
 
 
\item While waiting for the pipeline to load following any taken branch, jump,
\item While waiting for the pipeline to load following any taken branch, jump,
        return from interrupt or switch to interrupt context (5 stall cycles)
        return from interrupt or switch to interrupt context (4 stall cycles)
 
 
Fig.~\ref{fig:bcstalls}
Fig.~\ref{fig:bcstalls}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=3.5in]{../gfx/bc.eps}
\includegraphics[width=3.5in]{../gfx/bc.eps}
\caption{A conditional branch generates 5 stall cycles}\label{fig:bcstalls}
\caption{A conditional branch generates 4 stall cycles}\label{fig:bcstalls}
\end{center}\end{figure}
\end{center}\end{figure}
illustrates the situation for a conditional branch.  In this case, the branch
illustrates the situation for a conditional branch.  In this case, the branch
instruction, {\tt BC}, is nominally followed by instructions {\tt I0} and so
instruction, {\tt BC}, is nominally followed by instructions {\tt I1} and so
forth.  However, since the branch is taken, the next instruction must be
forth.  However, since the branch is taken, the next instruction must be
{\tt IA}.  Therefore, the pipeline needs to be cleared and reloaded.
{\tt IA}.  Therefore, the pipeline needs to be cleared and reloaded.
Given that there are five stages to the pipeline, that accounts
Given that there are five stages to the pipeline, that accounts
for four of the five stalls.  The last stall cycle is lost in the pipelined
for the four stalls.  (Were the {\tt pipefetch} cache chosen, there would
prefetch stage which needs at least one clock with a valid PC before it can
be another stall internal to the {\tt pipefetch} cache.)
produce a new output.  {\Large\bf Note: When I did this myself, I counted
 
six stall cycles, for a total of seven cycles for this instruction.  Is five
 
really the right answer?}
 
 
 
The Zip CPU handles {\tt MOV \$X(PC),PC}, {\tt ADD \$X,PC}, and
The Zip CPU handles {\tt MOV \$X(PC),PC}, {\tt ADD \$X,PC}, and
{\tt LDI \$X,PC} instructions specially, however.  These instructions, when
{\tt LDI \$X,PC} instructions specially, however.  These instructions, when
not conditioned on the flags, can execute with only 2~stall cycles, such as
not conditioned on the flags, can execute with only a single stall cycle,
is shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:branch}.\footnote{Note that this behavior is
such as is shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:branch}.\footnote{Note that when using the
slated to be improved upon in subsequent releases.  With a better prefetch,
{\tt pipefetch} cache, this requires an additional stall cycle due to that
it should be possible to drop this down to one or zero stall cycles.}
cache's implementation.}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=4in]{../gfx/bra.eps}
\includegraphics[width=4in]{../gfx/bra.eps} %0.4in per clock
\caption{An expedited delay costs only 2~stall cycles}\label{fig:branch}
\caption{An expedited branch costs a single stall cycle}\label{fig:branch}
\end{center}\end{figure}
\end{center}\end{figure}
In this example, {\tt BR} is a branch always taken, {\tt I1} is the instruction
In this example, {\tt BR} is a branch always taken, {\tt I1} is the instruction
following the branch in memory, while {\tt IA} is the first instruction at the
following the branch in memory, while {\tt IA} is the first instruction at the
branch address.  ({\tt CLR} denotes a clear--pipeline operation, and does
branch address.  ({\tt CLR} denotes a clear--pipeline operation, and does
not represent any instruction.)
not represent any instruction.)
Line 1195... Line 1324...
opcode that will read and apply an immediate offset by one instruction.  The
opcode that will read and apply an immediate offset by one instruction.  The
good news is that this stall can easily be mitigated by proper scheduling.
good news is that this stall can easily be mitigated by proper scheduling.
That is, any instruction that does not add an immediate to {\tt RA} may be
That is, any instruction that does not add an immediate to {\tt RA} may be
scheduled into the stall slot.
scheduled into the stall slot.
 
 
\item When any (conditional) write to either the CC or PC Register is followed
This is also the reason why, when setting up a stack frame, the top of the
        by a memory operation
stack frame is used first: it eliminates this stall cycle.  Hence, to save
 
registers at the top of a procedure, one would write:
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}
\item\ {\tt OPCODE RA,PC} {\em Ex: a branch opcode}
\item\ {\tt SUB 2,SP}
\item\ {\em (stall, even if jump not taken)}
\item\ {\tt STO R1,(SP)}
\item\ {\tt LOD \$X(RA),RB}
\item\ {\tt STO R2,1(SP)}
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}
A timing diagram of this pipeline situation is shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:bcmem},
Had {\tt R1} instead been stored at {\tt 1(SP)} as the top of the stack,
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
there would've been an extra stall in setting up the stack frame.
\includegraphics[width=2in]{../gfx/bcmem.eps}
 
\caption{A (not taken) conditional branch followed by a memory operation}\label{fig:bcmem}
 
\end{center}\end{figure}
 
for a conditional branch, {\tt BC}, a memory operation, {\tt Mem} (which
 
must be a load here), and ALU instructions {\tt I1} and so forth.
 
Since branches take place in the writeback stage, the Zip CPU will stall the
 
pipeline for one clock anytime there may be a possible jump--forcing the
 
memory operation to stay in the operand decode stage.  This prevents
 
an instruction from executing a memory access after the jump but before the
 
jump is recognized.
 
 
 
This stall may be mitigated by shuffling the operations immediately following
 
a potential branch so that an ALU operation follows the branch instead of a
 
memory operation.
 
 
 
\item When reading from the CC register after setting the flags
\item When reading from the CC register after setting the flags
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}
\item\ {\tt ALUOP RA,RB} {\em Ex: a compare opcode}
\item\ {\tt ALUOP RA,RB} {\em ; Ex: a compare opcode}
\item\ {\em (stall)}
\item\ {\em (stall)}
\item\ {\tt TST sys.ccv,CC}
\item\ {\tt TST sys.ccv,CC}
\item\ {\tt BZ somewhere}
\item\ {\tt BZ somewhere}
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}
 
 
Line 1241... Line 1357...
that does not set flags in between the ALU operation and the instruction
that does not set flags in between the ALU operation and the instruction
that references the CC register.  For example, {\tt MOV \$addr+PC,uPC}
that references the CC register.  For example, {\tt MOV \$addr+PC,uPC}
followed by an {\tt RTU} ({\tt OR \$GIE,CC}) instruction will not incur
followed by an {\tt RTU} ({\tt OR \$GIE,CC}) instruction will not incur
this stall, whereas an {\tt OR \$BREAKEN,CC} followed by an {\tt OR \$STEP,CC}
this stall, whereas an {\tt OR \$BREAKEN,CC} followed by an {\tt OR \$STEP,CC}
will incur the stall, while a {\tt LDI \$BREAKEN|\$STEP,CC} will not since
will incur the stall, while a {\tt LDI \$BREAKEN|\$STEP,CC} will not since
it doesn't read the condition codes.
it doesn't read the condition codes before executing.
 
 
\item When waiting for a memory read operation to complete
\item When waiting for a memory read operation to complete
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}
\item\ {\tt LOD address,RA}
\item\ {\tt LOD address,RA}
\item\ {\em (multiple stalls, bus dependent, 4 clocks best)}
\item\ {\em (multiple stalls, bus dependent, 4 clocks best)}
Line 1255... Line 1371...
Remember, the Zip CPU does not support out of order execution.  Therefore,
Remember, the Zip CPU does not support out of order execution.  Therefore,
anytime the memory unit becomes busy both the memory unit and the ALU must
anytime the memory unit becomes busy both the memory unit and the ALU must
stall until the memory unit is cleared.  This is illustrated in
stall until the memory unit is cleared.  This is illustrated in
Fig.~\ref{fig:memrd},
Fig.~\ref{fig:memrd},
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=5in]{../gfx/memrd.eps}
\includegraphics[width=5.6in]{../gfx/memrd.eps}
\caption{Pipeline handling of a load instruction}\label{fig:memrd}
\caption{Pipeline handling of a load instruction}\label{fig:memrd}
\end{center}\end{figure}
\end{center}\end{figure}
since it is especially true of a load
since it is especially true of a load
instruction, which must still write its operand back to the register file.
instruction, which must still write its operand back to the register file.
Note that there is an extra stall at the end of the memory cycle, so that
Further, note that on a pipelined memory operation, the instruction must
the memory unit will be idle for one clock before an instruction will be
stall in the decode operand stage, lest it try to read a result from the
accepted into the ALU.
register file before the load result has been written to it.  Finally, note
Store instructions are different, as shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:memwr},
that there is an extra stall at the end of the memory cycle, so that
 
the memory unit will be idle for two clocks before an instruction will be
 
accepted into the ALU.  Store instructions are different, as shown in
 
Fig.~\ref{fig:memwr},
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\begin{figure}\begin{center}
\includegraphics[width=5in]{../gfx/memwr.eps}
\includegraphics[width=4in]{../gfx/memwr.eps}
\caption{Pipeline handling of a store instruction}\label{fig:memwr}
\caption{Pipeline handling of a store instruction}\label{fig:memwr}
\end{center}\end{figure}
\end{center}\end{figure}
since they can be busy with the bus without impacting later write back
since they can be busy with the bus without impacting later write back
pipeline stages.  Hence, only loads stall the pipeline.
pipeline stages.  Hence, only loads stall the pipeline.
 
 
Line 1308... Line 1427...
by one address each instruction.  These conditions work well for saving or
by one address each instruction.  These conditions work well for saving or
storing registers to the stack.  Indeed, if you noticed, both
storing registers to the stack.  Indeed, if you noticed, both
Fig.~\ref{fig:memrd} and Fig.~\ref{fig:memwr} illustrated pipelined memory
Fig.~\ref{fig:memrd} and Fig.~\ref{fig:memwr} illustrated pipelined memory
accesses.
accesses.
 
 
\item When waiting for a conditional memory read operation to complete
 
\begin{enumerate}
 
\item\ {\tt LOD.Z address,RA}
 
\item\ {\em (multiple stalls, bus dependent, 7 clocks best)}
 
\item\ {\tt OPCODE I+RA,RB}
 
\end{enumerate}
 
 
 
In this case, the Zip CPU doesn't warn the prefetch cache to get off the bus
 
two cycles before using the bus, so there's a potential for an extra three
 
cycle cost due to bus contention between the prefetch and the CPU.
 
 
 
This is true for both the LOD and the STO instructions, with the exception that
 
the STO instruction will continue in parallel with any ALU instructions that
 
follow it.
 
 
 
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
 
 
 
 
\chapter{Peripherals}\label{chap:periph}
\chapter{Peripherals}\label{chap:periph}
 
 
Line 1371... Line 1475...
interrupt and clears the active indicator.  This also has the side effect of
interrupt and clears the active indicator.  This also has the side effect of
disabling all interrupts, so a second write of {\tt 0x80000000} may be necessary
disabling all interrupts, so a second write of {\tt 0x80000000} may be necessary
to re-enable any other interrupts.
to re-enable any other interrupts.
 
 
The Zip System currently hosts two interrupt controllers, a primary and a
The Zip System currently hosts two interrupt controllers, a primary and a
secondary.  The primary interrupt controller has one interrupt line (perhaps
secondary.  The primary interrupt controller has one (or more) interrupt line(s)
more if you configure it for more) which may come from an external interrupt
which may come from an external interrupt source, and one interrupt line from
controller, and one interrupt line from the secondary controller.  Other
the secondary controller.  Other primary interrupts include the system timers,
primary interrupts include the system timers, the jiffies interrupt, and the
the jiffies interrupt, and the manual cache interrupt.  The secondary interrupt
manual cache interrupt.  The secondary interrupt controller maintains an
controller maintains an interrupt state for all of the processor accounting
interrupt state for all of the processor accounting counters.
counters.
 
 
\section{Counter}
\section{Counter}
 
 
The Zip Counter is a very simple counter: it just counts.  It cannot be
The Zip Counter is a very simple counter: it just counts.  It cannot be
halted.  When it rolls over, it issues an interrupt.  Writing a value to the
halted.  When it rolls over, it issues an interrupt.  Writing a value to the
Line 1425... Line 1529...
transaction.  This is useful in the case of any peripherals that are
transaction.  This is useful in the case of any peripherals that are
misbehaving.  If the bus watchdog terminates a bus transaction, the CPU may
misbehaving.  If the bus watchdog terminates a bus transaction, the CPU may
then read from its port to find out which memory location created the problem.
then read from its port to find out which memory location created the problem.
 
 
Aside from its unusual configuration, the bus watchdog is just another
Aside from its unusual configuration, the bus watchdog is just another
implementation of the fundamental timer described above.
implementation of the fundamental timer described above--stripped down
 
for simplicity.
 
 
\section{Jiffies}
\section{Jiffies}
 
 
This peripheral is motivated by the Linux use of `jiffies' whereby a process
This peripheral is motivated by the Linux use of `jiffies' whereby a process
can request to be put to sleep until a certain number of `jiffies' have
can request to be put to sleep until a certain number of `jiffies' have
elapsed.  Using this interface, the CPU can read the number of `jiffies'
elapsed.  Using this interface, the CPU can read the number of `jiffies'
from the peripheral (it only has the one location in address space), add the
from the peripheral (it only has the one location in address space), add the
sleep length to it, and write the result back to the peripheral.  The zipjiffies
sleep length to it, and write the result back to the peripheral.  The
 
{\tt zipjiffies}
peripheral will record the value written to it only if it is nearer the current
peripheral will record the value written to it only if it is nearer the current
counter value than the last current waiting interrupt time.  If no other
counter value than the last current waiting interrupt time.  If no other
interrupts are waiting, and this time is in the future, it will be enabled.
interrupts are waiting, and this time is in the future, it will be enabled.
(There is currently no way to disable a jiffie interrupt once set, other
(There is currently no way to disable a jiffie interrupt once set, other
than to disable the interrupt line in the interrupt controller.)  The processor
than to disable the interrupt line in the interrupt controller.)  The processor
Line 1455... Line 1561...
The purpose of this register is to support alarm times within a CPU.  To
The purpose of this register is to support alarm times within a CPU.  To
set an alarm for a particular process $N$ clocks in advance, read the current
set an alarm for a particular process $N$ clocks in advance, read the current
Jiffies value, and $N$, and write it back to the Jiffies register.  The
Jiffies value, and $N$, and write it back to the Jiffies register.  The
O/S must also keep track of values written to the Jiffies register.  Thus,
O/S must also keep track of values written to the Jiffies register.  Thus,
when an `alarm' trips, it should be removed from the list of alarms, the list
when an `alarm' trips, it should be removed from the list of alarms, the list
should be sorted, and the next alarm in terms of Jiffies should be written
should be resorted, and the next alarm in terms of Jiffies should be written
to the register.
to the register--possibly for a second time.
 
 
\section{Direct Memory Access Controller}
\section{Direct Memory Access Controller}
 
 
The Direct Memory Access (DMA) controller can be used to either move memory
The Direct Memory Access (DMA) controller can be used to either move memory
from one location to another, to read from a peripheral into memory, or to
from one location to another, to read from a peripheral into memory, or to
write from a peripheral into memory all without CPU intervention.  Further,
write from a peripheral into memory all without CPU intervention.  Further,
since the DMA controller can issue (and does issue) pipeline wishbone accesses,
since the DMA controller can issue (and does issue) pipeline wishbone accesses,
any DMA memory move will by nature be faster than a corresponding program
any DMA memory move will by nature be faster than a corresponding program
accomplishing the same move.  To put this to numbers, it may take a program
accomplishing the same move.  To put this to numbers, it may take a program
18~clocks per word transferred, whereas this DMA controller can move one
18~clocks per word transferred, whereas this DMA controller can move one
word in two clocks--provided it has bus access.  (The CPU gets priority over the
word in two clocks--provided it has bus access.  (The CPU gets priority over
bus.)
the bus.)
 
 
When copying memory from one location to another, the DMA controller will
When copying memory from one location to another, the DMA controller will
copy in units of a given transfer length--up to 1024 words at a time.  It will
copy in units of a given transfer length--up to 1024 words at a time.  It will
read that transfer length into its internal buffer, and then write to the
read that transfer length into its internal buffer, and then write to the
destination address from that buffer.  If the CPU interrupts a DMA transfer,
destination address from that buffer.
it will release the bus, let the CPU complete whatever it needs to do, and then
 
restart its transfer by writing the contents of its internal buffer and then
 
re-entering its read cycle again.
 
 
 
When coupled with a peripheral, the DMA controller can be configured to start
When coupled with a peripheral, the DMA controller can be configured to start
a memory copy on an interrupt line going high.  Further, the controller can be
a memory copy when any interrupt line going high.  Further, the controller can
configured to issue reads from (or to) the same address instead of incrementing
be configured to issue reads from (or to) the same address instead of
the address at each clock.  The DMA completes once the total number of items
incrementing the address at each clock.  The DMA completes once the total
specified (not the transfer length) have been transferred.
number of items specified (not the transfer length) have been transferred.
 
 
In each case, once the transfer is complete and the DMA unit returns to
In each case, once the transfer is complete and the DMA unit returns to
idle, the DMA will issue an interrupt.
idle, the DMA will issue an interrupt.
 
 
 
 
Line 1498... Line 1601...
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}
\item The Zip System depends upon an external 32-bit Wishbone bus.  This
\item The Zip System depends upon an external 32-bit Wishbone bus.  This
        must exist, and must be connected to the Zip CPU for it to work.
        must exist, and must be connected to the Zip CPU for it to work.
\item The Zip System needs to be told of its {\tt RESET\_ADDRESS}.  This is
\item The Zip System needs to be told of its {\tt RESET\_ADDRESS}.  This is
        the program counter of the first instruction following a reset.
        the program counter of the first instruction following a reset.
 
\item To conserve logic, you'll want to set the {\tt ADDRESS\_WIDTH} parameter
 
        to the number of address bits on your wishbone bus.
 
\item Likewise, the {\tt LGICACHE} parameter sets the number of bits in
 
        the instruction cache address.  This means that the instruction cache
 
        will have $2^{\mbox{\tiny\tt LGICACHE}}$ locations within it.
\item If you want the Zip System to start up on its own, you will need to
\item If you want the Zip System to start up on its own, you will need to
        set the {\tt START\_HALTED} parameter to zero.  Otherwise, if you
        set the {\tt START\_HALTED} parameter to zero.  Otherwise, if you
        wish to manually start the CPU, that is if upon reset you want the
        wish to manually start the CPU, that is if upon reset you want the
        CPU start start in its halted, reset state, then set this parameter to
        CPU start start in its halted, reset state, then set this parameter to
        one.
        one.  This latter configuration is useful for a CPU that should be
 
        idle (i.e. halted) until given an explicit instruction from somewhere
 
        else to start.
\item The third parameter to set is the number of interrupts you will be
\item The third parameter to set is the number of interrupts you will be
        providing from external to the CPU.  This can be anything from one
        providing from external to the CPU.  This can be anything from one
        to nine, but it cannot be zero.  (Wire this line to a 1'b0 if you
        to sixteen, but it cannot be zero.  (Set this to 1 and wire the single
        do not wish to support any external interrupts.)
        interrupt line to a 1'b0 if you do not wish to support any external
 
        interrupts.)
\item Finally, you need to place into some wishbone accessible address, whether
\item Finally, you need to place into some wishbone accessible address, whether
        RAM or (more likely) ROM, the initial instructions for the CPU.
        RAM or (more likely) ROM, the initial instructions for the CPU.
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}
If you have enabled your CPU to start automatically, then upon power up the
If you have enabled your CPU to start automatically, then upon power up the
CPU will immediately start executing your instructions.
CPU will immediately start executing your instructions, starting at the given
 
{\tt RESET\_ADDRESS}.
 
 
This is, however, not how I have used the Zip CPU.  I have instead used the
This is, however, not how I have used the Zip CPU.  I have instead used the
Zip CPU in a more controlled environment.  For me, the CPU starts in a
Zip CPU in a more controlled environment.  For me, the CPU starts in a
halted state, and waits to be told to start.  Further, the RESET address is a
halted state, and waits to be told to start.  Further, the RESET address is a
location in RAM.  After bringing up the board I am using, and further the
location in RAM.  After bringing up the board I am using, and further the
bus that is on it, the RAM memory is then loaded externally with the program
bus that is on it, the RAM memory is then loaded externally with the program
I wish the Zip System to run.  Once the RAM is loaded, I release the CPU.
I wish the Zip System to run.  Once the RAM is loaded, I release the CPU.
The CPU then runs until its halt condition, at which point its task is
The CPU then runs until either its halt condition or an exception occurrs in
complete.
supervisor mode, at which point its task is complete.
 
 
Eventually, I intend to place an operating system onto the ZipSystem, I'm
Eventually, I intend to place an operating system onto the ZipSystem, I'm
just not there yet.
just not there yet.
 
 
The rest of this chapter examines some common programming models, and how they
The rest of this chapter examines some common programming models, and how they
Line 1649... Line 1761...
\hbox to 0.25in{}\= {\em ; We save R0, CC, and PC only} \\
\hbox to 0.25in{}\= {\em ; We save R0, CC, and PC only} \\
\>        {\tt MOV -3(uSP),R3} \\
\>        {\tt MOV -3(uSP),R3} \\
\>        {\tt MOV uR0,R0} \\
\>        {\tt MOV uR0,R0} \\
\>        {\tt MOV uCC,R1} \\
\>        {\tt MOV uCC,R1} \\
\>        {\tt MOV uPC,R2} \\
\>        {\tt MOV uPC,R2} \\
\>        {\tt STO R0,1(R3)} {\em ; Exploit memory pipelining: }\\
\>        {\tt STO R0,(R3)} {\em ; Exploit memory pipelining: }\\
\>        {\tt STO R1,2(R3)} {\em ; All instructions write to stack }\\
\>        {\tt STO R1,1(R3)} {\em ; All instructions write to stack }\\
\>        {\tt STO R2,3(R3)} {\em ; All offsets increment by one }\\
\>        {\tt STO R2,2(R3)} {\em ; All offsets increment by one }\\
\>        {\tt MOV R3,uSP} {\em ; Return the updated stack pointer } \\
\>        {\tt MOV R3,uSP} {\em ; Return the updated stack pointer } \\
\end{tabbing}
\end{tabbing}
\caption{Example Saving Minimal User Context}\label{tbl:save-partial}
\caption{Example Saving Minimal User Context}\label{tbl:save-partial}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
This is much cheaper than the full context swap of a preemptive multitasking
This is much cheaper than the full context swap of a preemptive multitasking
Line 1692... Line 1804...
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabbing}
\begin{tabbing}
RESTORE\_PARTIAL\_CONTEXT: \\
RESTORE\_PARTIAL\_CONTEXT: \\
\hbox to 0.25in{}\= {\em ; We retore R0, CC, and PC only} \\
\hbox to 0.25in{}\= {\em ; We retore R0, CC, and PC only} \\
\>        {\tt MOV uSP,R3} {\em ; Return the updated stack pointer } \\
\>        {\tt MOV uSP,R3} {\em ; Return the updated stack pointer } \\
\>        {\tt LOD R0,1(R3),R0} {\em ; Exploit memory pipelining: }\\
\>        {\tt LOD R0,(R3),R0} {\em ; Exploit memory pipelining: }\\
\>        {\tt LOD R1,2(R3),R1} {\em ; All instructions write to stack }\\
\>        {\tt LOD R1,1(R3),R1} {\em ; All instructions write to stack }\\
\>        {\tt LOD R2,3(R3),R2} {\em ; All offsets increment by one }\\
\>        {\tt LOD R2,2(R3),R2} {\em ; All offsets increment by one }\\
\>        {\tt MOV R0,uR0} \\
\>        {\tt MOV R0,uR0} \\
\>        {\tt MOV R1,uCC} \\
\>        {\tt MOV R1,uCC} \\
\>        {\tt MOV R2,uPC} \\
\>        {\tt MOV R2,uPC} \\
\>        {\tt MOV 3(R3),uSP} \\
\>        {\tt MOV 3(R3),uSP} \\
\end{tabbing}
\end{tabbing}
Line 1754... Line 1866...
This same code can be translated in Zip Assembly as shown in
This same code can be translated in Zip Assembly as shown in
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:memcp-asm}.
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:memcp-asm}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{ll}
\begin{tabular}{ll}
memcp: \\
memcp: \\
&        {\em ; R0 = *dest, R1 = *src, R2 = LEN} \\
&        {\em ; R0 = *dest, R1 = *src, R2 = LEN, R3 = return addr} \\
&        {\em ; The following will operate in 17 clocks per word minus one clock} \\
&        {\em ; The following will operate in $12N+19$ clocks.} \\
&        {\tt CMP 0,R2} \\
&        {\tt CMP 0,R2} \\ % 8 clocks per setup
&        {\tt LOD.Z -1(SP),PC} {\em ; A conditional return }\\
&        {\tt MOV.Z R3,PC} {\em ; A conditional return }\\
&        {\em ; (One stall on potentially writing to PC)} \\
&        {\tt SUB 1,SP} {\em ; Create a stack frame}\\
&        {\tt LOD (R1),R3} \\
&        {\tt STO R4,(SP)} {\em ; and a local variable}\\
 
&        {\em ; (4 stalls, cannot be further scheduled away)} \\
 
loop: \\ % 12 clocks per loop
 
&        {\tt LOD (R1),R4} \\
&        {\em ; (4 stalls, cannot be scheduled away)} \\
&        {\em ; (4 stalls, cannot be scheduled away)} \\
&        {\tt STO R3,(R2)} {\em ; (4 schedulable stalls, has no impact now)} \\
&        {\tt STO R4,(R0)} {\em ; (4 schedulable stalls, has no impact now)} \\
&        {\tt ADD 1,R1} \\
 
&        {\tt SUB 1,R2} \\
&        {\tt SUB 1,R2} \\
&        {\tt BNZ loop} \\
&        {\tt BZ memcpend} \\
&        {\em ; (5 stalls, if branch taken, to clear and refill the pipeline)} \\
&        {\tt ADD 1,R0} \\
&        {\tt RET} \\
&        {\tt ADD 1,R1} \\
 
&        {\tt BRA loop} \\
 
&        {\em ; (1 stall on a BRA instruction)} \\
 
memcpend: % 11 clocks
 
&        {\tt LOD (SP),R4} \\
 
&        {\em ; (4 stalls, cannot be further scheduled away)} \\
 
&        {\tt ADD 1,SP} \\
 
&        {\tt JMP R3} \\
 
&        {\em ; (4 stalls)} \\
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Example Memory Copy code in Zip Assembly}\label{tbl:memcp-asm}
\caption{Example Memory Copy code in Zip Assembly}\label{tbl:memcp-asm}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
This example points out several things associated with the Zip CPU.  First,
This example points out several things associated with the Zip CPU.  First,
a straightforward implementation of a for loop is not the fastest loop
a straightforward implementation of a for loop is not the fastest loop
Line 1786... Line 1908...
Fundamental to any multiprocessing system is the ability to switch from one
Fundamental to any multiprocessing system is the ability to switch from one
task to the next.  In the ZipSystem, this is accomplished in one of a couple
task to the next.  In the ZipSystem, this is accomplished in one of a couple
ways.  The first step is that an interrupt happens.  Anytime an interrupt
ways.  The first step is that an interrupt happens.  Anytime an interrupt
happens, the CPU needs to execute the following tasks in supervisor mode:
happens, the CPU needs to execute the following tasks in supervisor mode:
\begin{enumerate}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Check for a trap instruction.  That  is, if the user task requested a
\item Check for a trap instruction, or other user exception such as a break,
        trap, we may not wish to adjust the context, check interrupts, or call
        bus error, division by zero error, or floating point exception.  That
        the scheduler.  Tbl.~\ref{tbl:trap-check}
        is, if the user process needs attending then we may not wish to adjust
 
        the context, check interrupts, or call the scheduler.
 
        Tbl.~\ref{tbl:trap-check}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{ll}
\begin{tabular}{ll}
{\tt return\_to\_user:} \\
{\tt return\_to\_user:} \\
&       {\em; The instruction before the context switch processing must} \\
&       {\em; The instruction before the context switch processing must} \\
&       {\em; be the RTU instruction that enacted user mode in the first} \\
&       {\em; be the RTU instruction that enacted user mode in the first} \\
&       {\em; place.  We show it here just for reference.} \\
&       {\em; place.  We show it here just for reference.} \\
&       {\tt RTU} \\
&       {\tt RTU} \\
{\tt trap\_check:} \\
{\tt trap\_check:} \\
&       {\tt MOV uCC,R0} \\
&       {\tt MOV uCC,R0} \\
&       {\tt TST \$TRAP,R0} \\
&       {\tt TST \$TRAP \textbar \$BUSERR \textbar \$DIVE \textbar \$FPE,R0} \\
&       {\tt BNZ swap\_out} \\
&       {\tt BNZ swap\_out} \\
&       {; \em Do something here to execute the trap} \\
&       {; \em Do something here to execute the trap} \\
&       {; \em Don't need to call the scheduler, so we can just return} \\
&       {; \em Don't need to call the scheduler, so we can just return} \\
&       {\tt BRA return\_to\_user} \\
&       {\tt BRA return\_to\_user} \\
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Checking for whether the user issued a TRAP instruction}\label{tbl:trap-check}
\caption{Checking for whether the user task needs our attention}\label{tbl:trap-check}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
        shows the rudiments of this code, while showing nothing of how the
        shows the rudiments of this code, while showing nothing of how the
        actual trap would be implemented.
        actual trap would be implemented.
 
 
You may also wish to note that the instruction before the first instruction
You may also wish to note that the instruction before the first instruction
Line 1834... Line 1958...
&        {\tt MOV uR0,R0} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR0,R0} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR1,R1} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR1,R1} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR2,R2} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR2,R2} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR3,R3} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR3,R3} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR4,R4} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR4,R4} \\
&        {\tt STO R0,1(R5)} {\em ; Exploit memory pipelining: }\\
&        {\tt STO R0,(R5)} {\em ; Exploit memory pipelining: }\\
&        {\tt STO R1,2(R5)} {\em ; All instructions write to stack }\\
&        {\tt STO R1,1(R5)} {\em ; All instructions write to stack }\\
&        {\tt STO R2,3(R5)} {\em ; All offsets increment by one }\\
&        {\tt STO R2,2(R5)} {\em ; All offsets increment by one }\\
&        {\tt STO R3,4(R5)} {\em ; Longest pipeline is 5 cycles.}\\
&        {\tt STO R3,3(R5)} {\em ; Longest pipeline is 5 cycles.}\\
&        {\tt STO R4,5(R5)} \\
&        {\tt STO R4,4(R5)} \\
        & \ldots {\em ; Need to repeat for all user registers} \\
        & \ldots {\em ; Need to repeat for all user registers} \\
\iffalse
\iffalse
&        {\tt MOV uR5,R0} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR5,R0} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR6,R1} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR6,R1} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR7,R2} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR7,R2} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR8,R3} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR8,R3} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR9,R4} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR9,R4} \\
&        {\tt STO R0,6(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R0,5(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R1,7(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R1,6(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R2,8(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R2,7(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R3,9(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R3,8(R5) }\\
&        {\tt STO R4,10(R5)} \\
&        {\tt STO R4,9(R5)} \\
\fi
\fi
&        {\tt MOV uR10,R0} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR10,R0} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR11,R1} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR11,R1} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR12,R2} \\
&        {\tt MOV uR12,R2} \\
&        {\tt MOV uCC,R3} \\
&        {\tt MOV uCC,R3} \\
&        {\tt MOV uPC,R4} \\
&        {\tt MOV uPC,R4} \\
&        {\tt STO R0,11(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R0,10(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R1,12(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R1,11(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R2,13(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R2,12(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R3,14(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R3,13(R5)}\\
&        {\tt STO R4,15(R5)} \\
&        {\tt STO R4,14(R5)} \\
&       {\em ; We can skip storing the stack, uSP, since it'll be stored}\\
&       {\em ; We can skip storing the stack, uSP, since it'll be stored}\\
&       {\em ; elsewhere (in the task structure) }\\
&       {\em ; elsewhere (in the task structure) }\\
\end{tabular}
\end{tabular}
\caption{Example Storing User Task Context}\label{tbl:context-out}
\caption{Example Storing User Task Context}\label{tbl:context-out}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
Line 1961... Line 2085...
\begin{tabular}{ll}
\begin{tabular}{ll}
{\tt swap\_in:} \\
{\tt swap\_in:} \\
&       {\tt LOD stack(R12),R5} \\
&       {\tt LOD stack(R12),R5} \\
&       {\tt MOV 15(R1),uSP} \\
&       {\tt MOV 15(R1),uSP} \\
        & {\em ; Be sure to exploit the memory pipelining capability} \\
        & {\em ; Be sure to exploit the memory pipelining capability} \\
&       {\tt LOD 1(R5),R0} \\
&       {\tt LOD (R5),R0} \\
&       {\tt LOD 2(R5),R1} \\
&       {\tt LOD 1(R5),R1} \\
&       {\tt LOD 3(R5),R2} \\
&       {\tt LOD 2(R5),R2} \\
&       {\tt LOD 4(R5),R3} \\
&       {\tt LOD 3(R5),R3} \\
&       {\tt LOD 5(R5),R4} \\
&       {\tt LOD 4(R5),R4} \\
&       {\tt MOV R0,uR0} \\
&       {\tt MOV R0,uR0} \\
&       {\tt MOV R1,uR1} \\
&       {\tt MOV R1,uR1} \\
&       {\tt MOV R2,uR2} \\
&       {\tt MOV R2,uR2} \\
&       {\tt MOV R3,uR3} \\
&       {\tt MOV R3,uR3} \\
&       {\tt MOV R4,uR4} \\
&       {\tt MOV R4,uR4} \\
        & \ldots {\em ; Need to repeat for all user registers} \\
        & \ldots {\em ; Need to repeat for all user registers} \\
&       {\tt LOD 11(R5),R0} \\
&       {\tt LOD 10(R5),R0} \\
&       {\tt LOD 12(R5),R1} \\
&       {\tt LOD 11(R5),R1} \\
&       {\tt LOD 13(R5),R2} \\
&       {\tt LOD 12(R5),R2} \\
&       {\tt LOD 14(R5),R3} \\
&       {\tt LOD 13(R5),R3} \\
&       {\tt LOD 15(R5),R4} \\
&       {\tt LOD 14(R5),R4} \\
&       {\tt MOV R0,uR10} \\
&       {\tt MOV R0,uR10} \\
&       {\tt MOV R1,uR11} \\
&       {\tt MOV R1,uR11} \\
&       {\tt MOV R2,uR12} \\
&       {\tt MOV R2,uR12} \\
&       {\tt MOV R3,uCC} \\
&       {\tt MOV R3,uCC} \\
&       {\tt MOV R4,uPC} \\
&       {\tt MOV R4,uPC} \\
Line 2014... Line 2138...
accessed via the ZipCPU shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:zpregs},
accessed via the ZipCPU shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:zpregs},
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}\begin{reglist}
\begin{center}\begin{reglist}
PIC   & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000000} & 32 & R/W & Primary Interrupt Controller \\\hline
PIC   & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000000} & 32 & R/W & Primary Interrupt Controller \\\hline
WDT   & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000001} & 32 & R/W & Watchdog Timer \\\hline
WDT   & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000001} & 32 & R/W & Watchdog Timer \\\hline
  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000002} & 32 & R/W & {\em (Reserved for future use)} \\\hline
  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000002} & 32 & R & Address of last bus error \\\hline
CTRIC & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000003} & 32 & R/W & Secondary Interrupt Controller \\\hline
CTRIC & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000003} & 32 & R/W & Secondary Interrupt Controller \\\hline
TMRA  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000004} & 32 & R/W & Timer A\\\hline
TMRA  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000004} & 32 & R/W & Timer A\\\hline
TMRB  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000005} & 32 & R/W & Timer B\\\hline
TMRB  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000005} & 32 & R/W & Timer B\\\hline
TMRC  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000006} & 32 & R/W & Timer C\\\hline
TMRC  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000006} & 32 & R/W & Timer C\\\hline
JIFF  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000007} & 32 & R/W & Jiffies \\\hline
JIFF  & \scalebox{0.8}{\tt 0xc0000007} & 32 & R/W & Jiffies \\\hline
Line 2051... Line 2175...
The peripheral registers, listed in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:zpregs}, are shown in the
The peripheral registers, listed in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:zpregs}, are shown in the
CPU's address space.  These may be accessed by the CPU at these addresses,
CPU's address space.  These may be accessed by the CPU at these addresses,
and when so accessed will respond as described in Chapt.~\ref{chap:periph}.
and when so accessed will respond as described in Chapt.~\ref{chap:periph}.
These registers will be discussed briefly again here.
These registers will be discussed briefly again here.
 
 
 
\subsection{Interrupt Controller(s)}
The Zip CPU Interrupt controller has four different types of bits, as shown in
The Zip CPU Interrupt controller has four different types of bits, as shown in
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:picbits}.
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:picbits}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{bitlist}
\begin{bitlist}
31 & R/W & Master Interrupt Enable\\\hline
31 & R/W & Master Interrupt Enable\\\hline
30\ldots 16 & R/W & Interrupt Enables, write '1' to change\\\hline
30\ldots 16 & R/W & Interrupt Enables, write `1' to change\\\hline
15 & R & Current Master Interrupt State\\\hline
15 & R & Current Master Interrupt State\\\hline
15\ldots 0 & R/W & Input Interrupt states, write '1' to clear\\\hline
15\ldots 0 & R/W & Input Interrupt states, write `1' to clear\\\hline
\end{bitlist}
\end{bitlist}
\caption{Interrupt Controller Register Bits}\label{tbl:picbits}
\caption{Interrupt Controller Register Bits}\label{tbl:picbits}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
The high order bit, or bit--31, is the master interrupt enable bit.  When this
The high order bit, or bit--31, is the master interrupt enable bit.  When this
bit is set, then any time an interrupt occurs the CPU will be interrupted and
bit is set, then any time an interrupt occurs the CPU will be interrupted and
will switch to supervisor mode, etc.
will switch to supervisor mode, etc.
 
 
Bits 30~\ldots 16 are interrupt enable bits.  Should the interrupt line go
Bits 30~\ldots 16 are interrupt enable bits.  Should the interrupt line go
ghile while enabled, an interrupt will be generated.  To set an interrupt enable
hi while enabled, an interrupt will be generated.  (All interrupts are positive
bit, one needs to write the master interrupt enable while writing a `1' to this
edge triggered.)  To set an interrupt enable bit, one needs to write the
the bit.  To clear, one need only write a `0' to the master interrupt enable,
master interrupt enable while writing a `1' to this the bit.  To clear, one
while leaving this line high.
need only write a `0' to the master interrupt enable, while leaving this line
 
high.
 
 
Bits 15\ldots 0 are the current state of the interrupt vector.  Interrupt lines
Bits 15\ldots 0 are the current state of the interrupt vector.  Interrupt lines
trip when they go high, and remain tripped until they are acknowledged.  If
trip when they go high, and remain tripped until they are acknowledged.  If
the interrupt goes high for longer than one pulse, it may be high when a clear
the interrupt goes high for longer than one pulse, it may be high when a clear
is requested.  If so, the interrupt will not clear.  The line must go low
is requested.  If so, the interrupt will not clear.  The line must go low
Line 2089... Line 2215...
\item When an interrupt occurs, the supervisor will switch to the interrupt
\item When an interrupt occurs, the supervisor will switch to the interrupt
        state.  It will then cycle through the interrupt bits to learn which
        state.  It will then cycle through the interrupt bits to learn which
        interrupt handler to call.
        interrupt handler to call.
\item If the interrupt handler expects more interrupts, it will clear its
\item If the interrupt handler expects more interrupts, it will clear its
        current interrupt when it is done handling the interrupt in question.
        current interrupt when it is done handling the interrupt in question.
        To do this, it will write a '1' to the low order interrupt mask,
        To do this, it will write a `1' to the low order interrupt mask,
        such as writing a {\tt 32'h80000001}.
        such as writing a {\tt 32'h0000\_0001}.
\item If the interrupt handler does not expect any more interrupts, it will
\item If the interrupt handler does not expect any more interrupts, it will
        instead clear the interrupt from the controller by writing a
        instead clear the interrupt from the controller by writing a
        {\tt 32'h00010001} to the controller.
        {\tt 32'h0001\_0001} to the controller.
\item Once all interrupts have been handled, the supervisor will write a
\item Once all interrupts have been handled, the supervisor will write a
        {\tt 32'h80000000} to the interrupt register to re-enable interrupt
        {\tt 32'h8000\_0000} to the interrupt register to re-enable interrupt
        generation.
        generation.
\item The supervisor should also check the user trap bit, and possible soft
\item The supervisor should also check the user trap bit, and possible soft
        interrupt bits here, but this action has nothing to do with the
        interrupt bits here, but this action has nothing to do with the
        interrupt control register.
        interrupt control register.
\item The supervisor will then leave interrupt mode, possibly adjusting
\item The supervisor will then leave interrupt mode, possibly adjusting
        whichever task is running, by executing a return from interrupt
        whichever task is running, by executing a return from interrupt
        command.
        command.
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}
 
 
 
\subsection{Timer Register}
 
 
Leaving the interrupt controller, we show the timer registers bit definitions
Leaving the interrupt controller, we show the timer registers bit definitions
in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:tmrbits}.
in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:tmrbits}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{bitlist}
\begin{bitlist}
31 & R/W & Auto-Reload\\\hline
31 & R/W & Auto-Reload\\\hline
Line 2123... Line 2251...
In this mode, upon setting its interrupt bit for one cycle, the timer will
In this mode, upon setting its interrupt bit for one cycle, the timer will
also reset itself back to the value of the timer that was written to it when
also reset itself back to the value of the timer that was written to it when
the auto--reload option was written to it.  To clear and stop the timer,
the auto--reload option was written to it.  To clear and stop the timer,
just simply write a `32'h00' to this register.
just simply write a `32'h00' to this register.
 
 
 
\subsection{Jiffies}
 
 
The Jiffies register is somewhat similar in that the register always changes.
The Jiffies register is somewhat similar in that the register always changes.
In this case, the register counts up, whereas the timer always counted down.
In this case, the register counts up, whereas the timer always counted down.
Reads from this register, as shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:jiffybits},
Reads from this register, as shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:jiffybits},
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{bitlist}
\begin{bitlist}
Line 2140... Line 2270...
greater than zero while ignoring truncation, will set a new Jiffy interrupt
greater than zero while ignoring truncation, will set a new Jiffy interrupt
time.  At that time, the Jiffy vector will clear, and another interrupt time
time.  At that time, the Jiffy vector will clear, and another interrupt time
may either be written to it, or it will just continue counting without
may either be written to it, or it will just continue counting without
activating any more interrupts.
activating any more interrupts.
 
 
 
\subsection{Performance Counters}
 
 
The Zip CPU also supports several counter peripherals, mostly in the way of
The Zip CPU also supports several counter peripherals, mostly in the way of
process accounting.  This peripherals have a single register associated with
process accounting.  This peripherals have a single register associated with
them, shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:ctrbits}.
them, shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:ctrbits}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{bitlist}
\begin{bitlist}
Line 2165... Line 2297...
It is envisioned that these counters will be used as follows: First, every time
It is envisioned that these counters will be used as follows: First, every time
a master counter rolls over, the supervisor (Operating System) will record
a master counter rolls over, the supervisor (Operating System) will record
the fact.  Second, whenever activating a user task, the Operating System will
the fact.  Second, whenever activating a user task, the Operating System will
set the four user counters to zero.  When the user task has completed, the
set the four user counters to zero.  When the user task has completed, the
Operating System will read the timers back off, to determine how much of the
Operating System will read the timers back off, to determine how much of the
CPU the process had consumed.
CPU the process had consumed.  To keep this accurate, the user counters will
 
only increment when the GIE bit is set to indicate that the processor is
 
in user mode.
 
 
 
\subsection{DMA Controller}
 
 
The final peripheral to discuss is the DMA controller.  This controller
The final peripheral to discuss is the DMA controller.  This controller
has four registers.  Of these four, the length, source and destination address
has four registers.  Of these four, the length, source and destination address
registers should need no further explanation.  They are full 32--bit registers
registers should need no further explanation.  They are full 32--bit registers
specifying the entire transfer length, the starting address to read from, and
specifying the entire transfer length, the starting address to read from, and
Line 2181... Line 2317...
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{bitlist}
\begin{bitlist}
31 & R & DMA Active\\\hline
31 & R & DMA Active\\\hline
30 & R & Wishbone error, transaction aborted.  This bit is cleared the next time
30 & R & Wishbone error, transaction aborted.  This bit is cleared the next time
        this register is written to.\\\hline
        this register is written to.\\\hline
29 & R/W & Set to '1' to prevent the controller from incrementing the source address, '0' for normal memory copy. \\\hline
29 & R/W & Set to `1' to prevent the controller from incrementing the source address, `0' for normal memory copy. \\\hline
28 & R/W & Set to '1' to prevent the controller from incrementing the
28 & R/W & Set to `1' to prevent the controller from incrementing the
        destination address, '0' for normal memory copy. \\\hline
        destination address, `0' for normal memory copy. \\\hline
27 \ldots 16 & W & The DMA Key.  Write a 12'hfed to these bits to start the
27 \ldots 16 & W & The DMA Key.  Write a 12'hfed to these bits to start the
        activate any DMA transfer.  \\\hline
        activate any DMA transfer.  \\\hline
27 & R & Always reads '0', to force the deliberate writing of the key. \\\hline
27 & R & Always reads `0', to force the deliberate writing of the key. \\\hline
26 \ldots 16 & R & Indicates the number of items in the transfer buffer that
26 \ldots 16 & R & Indicates the number of items in the transfer buffer that
        have yet to be written. \\\hline
        have yet to be written. \\\hline
15 & R/W & Set to '1' to trigger on an interrupt, or '0' to start immediately
15 & R/W & Set to `1' to trigger on an interrupt, or `0' to start immediately
        upon receiving a valid key.\\\hline
        upon receiving a valid key.\\\hline
14\ldots 10 & R/W & Select among one of 32~possible interrupt lines.\\\hline
14\ldots 10 & R/W & Select among one of 32~possible interrupt lines.\\\hline
9\ldots 0 & R/W & Intermediate transfer length minus one.  Thus, to transfer
9\ldots 0 & R/W & Intermediate transfer length minus one.  Thus, to transfer
        one item at a time set this value to 0. To transfer 1024 at a time,
        one item at a time set this value to 0. To transfer 1024 at a time,
        set it to 1024.\\\hline
        set it to 1024.\\\hline
Line 2219... Line 2355...
reduced to two addresses, as outlined earlier in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:dbgregs}.
reduced to two addresses, as outlined earlier in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:dbgregs}.
Access to the Zip System begins with the Debug Control register, shown in
Access to the Zip System begins with the Debug Control register, shown in
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:dbgctrl}.
Tbl.~\ref{tbl:dbgctrl}.
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{table}\begin{center}
\begin{bitlist}
\begin{bitlist}
31\ldots 14 & R & Reserved\\\hline
31\ldots 14 & R & External interrupt state.  Bit 14 is valid for one
 
        interrupt only, bit 15 for two, etc.\\\hline
13 & R & CPU GIE setting\\\hline
13 & R & CPU GIE setting\\\hline
12 & R & CPU is sleeping\\\hline
12 & R & CPU is sleeping\\\hline
11 & W & Command clear PF cache\\\hline
11 & W & Command clear PF cache\\\hline
10 & R/W & Command HALT, Set to '1' to halt the CPU\\\hline
10 & R/W & Command HALT, Set to `1' to halt the CPU\\\hline
9 & R & Stall Status, '1' if CPU is busy\\\hline
9 & R & Stall Status, `1' if CPU is busy (i.e., not halted yet)\\\hline
8 & R/W & Step Command, set to '1' to step the CPU, also sets the halt bit\\\hline
8 & R/W & Step Command, set to `1' to step the CPU, also sets the halt bit\\\hline
7 & R & Interrupt Request \\\hline
7 & R & Interrupt Request Pending\\\hline
6 & R/W & Command RESET \\\hline
6 & R/W & Command RESET \\\hline
5\ldots 0 & R/W & Debug Register Address \\\hline
5\ldots 0 & R/W & Debug Register Address \\\hline
\end{bitlist}
\end{bitlist}
\caption{Debug Control Register Bits}\label{tbl:dbgctrl}
\caption{Debug Control Register Bits}\label{tbl:dbgctrl}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
 
 
The first step in debugging access is to determine whether or not the CPU
The first step in debugging access is to determine whether or not the CPU
is halted, and to halt it if not.  To do this, first write a '1' to the
is halted, and to halt it if not.  To do this, first write a `1' to the
Command HALT bit.  This will halt the CPU and place it into debug mode.
Command HALT bit.  This will halt the CPU and place it into debug mode.
Once the CPU is halted, the stall status bit will drop to zero.  Thus,
Once the CPU is halted, the stall status bit will drop to zero.  Thus,
if bit 10 is high and bit 9 low, the debug port is open to examine the
if bit 10 is high and bit 9 low, the debug port is open to examine the
internal state of the CPU.
internal state of the CPU.
 
 
Line 2259... Line 2396...
uSP & 29 & 32 & R/W & User Stack Pointer\\\hline
uSP & 29 & 32 & R/W & User Stack Pointer\\\hline
uCC & 30 & 32 & R/W & User Condition Code Register \\\hline
uCC & 30 & 32 & R/W & User Condition Code Register \\\hline
uPC & 31 & 32 & R/W & User Program Counter\\\hline
uPC & 31 & 32 & R/W & User Program Counter\\\hline
PIC & 32 & 32 & R/W & Primary Interrupt Controller \\\hline
PIC & 32 & 32 & R/W & Primary Interrupt Controller \\\hline
WDT & 33 & 32 & R/W & Watchdog Timer\\\hline
WDT & 33 & 32 & R/W & Watchdog Timer\\\hline
 
BUS & 34 & 32 & R & Last Bus Error\\\hline
CTRIC & 35 & 32 & R/W & Secondary Interrupt Controller\\\hline
CTRIC & 35 & 32 & R/W & Secondary Interrupt Controller\\\hline
TMRA & 36 & 32 & R/W & Timer A\\\hline
TMRA & 36 & 32 & R/W & Timer A\\\hline
TMRB & 37 & 32 & R/W & Timer B\\\hline
TMRB & 37 & 32 & R/W & Timer B\\\hline
TMRC & 38 & 32 & R/W & Timer C\\\hline
TMRC & 38 & 32 & R/W & Timer C\\\hline
JIFF & 39 & 32 & R/W & Jiffies peripheral\\\hline
JIFF & 39 & 32 & R/W & Jiffies peripheral\\\hline
Line 2312... Line 2450...
Address Width & 1--bit \\\hline
Address Width & 1--bit \\\hline
Port size & 32--bit \\\hline
Port size & 32--bit \\\hline
Port granularity & 32--bit \\\hline
Port granularity & 32--bit \\\hline
Maximum Operand Size & 32--bit \\\hline
Maximum Operand Size & 32--bit \\\hline
Data transfer ordering & (Irrelevant) \\\hline
Data transfer ordering & (Irrelevant) \\\hline
Clock constraints & Works at 100~MHz on a Basys--3 board\\\hline
Clock constraints & Works at 100~MHz on a Basys--3 board, and 80~MHz on a
 
                XuLA2--LX25\\\hline
Signal Names & \begin{tabular}{ll}
Signal Names & \begin{tabular}{ll}
                Signal Name & Wishbone Equivalent \\\hline
                Signal Name & Wishbone Equivalent \\\hline
                {\tt i\_clk} & {\tt CLK\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_clk} & {\tt CLK\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_dbg\_cyc} & {\tt CYC\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_dbg\_cyc} & {\tt CYC\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_dbg\_stb} & {\tt STB\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_dbg\_stb} & {\tt STB\_I} \\
Line 2334... Line 2473...
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{center}
\begin{wishboneds}
\begin{wishboneds}
Revision level of wishbone & WB B4 spec \\\hline
Revision level of wishbone & WB B4 spec \\\hline
Type of interface & Master, Read/Write, single cycle or pipelined\\\hline
Type of interface & Master, Read/Write, single cycle or pipelined\\\hline
Address Width & 32--bit bits \\\hline
Address Width & (Zip System parameter, can be up to 32--bit bits) \\\hline
Port size & 32--bit \\\hline
Port size & 32--bit \\\hline
Port granularity & 32--bit \\\hline
Port granularity & 32--bit \\\hline
Maximum Operand Size & 32--bit \\\hline
Maximum Operand Size & 32--bit \\\hline
Data transfer ordering & (Irrelevant) \\\hline
Data transfer ordering & (Irrelevant) \\\hline
Clock constraints & Works at 100~MHz on a Basys--3 board\\\hline
Clock constraints & Works at 100~MHz on a Basys--3 board, and 80~MHz on a
 
                XuLA2--LX25\\\hline
Signal Names & \begin{tabular}{ll}
Signal Names & \begin{tabular}{ll}
                Signal Name & Wishbone Equivalent \\\hline
                Signal Name & Wishbone Equivalent \\\hline
                {\tt i\_clk} & {\tt CLK\_O} \\
                {\tt i\_clk} & {\tt CLK\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_cyc} & {\tt CYC\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_cyc} & {\tt CYC\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_stb} & {\tt STB\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_stb} & {\tt STB\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_we} & {\tt WE\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_we} & {\tt WE\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_addr} & {\tt ADR\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_addr} & {\tt ADR\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_data} & {\tt DAT\_O} \\
                {\tt o\_wb\_data} & {\tt DAT\_O} \\
                {\tt i\_wb\_ack} & {\tt ACK\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_wb\_ack} & {\tt ACK\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_wb\_stall} & {\tt STALL\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_wb\_stall} & {\tt STALL\_I} \\
                {\tt i\_wb\_data} & {\tt DAT\_I}
                {\tt i\_wb\_data} & {\tt DAT\_I} \\
 
                {\tt i\_wb\_err} & {\tt ERR\_I}
                \end{tabular}\\\hline
                \end{tabular}\\\hline
\end{wishboneds}
\end{wishboneds}
\caption{Wishbone Datasheet for the CPU as Master}\label{tbl:wishbone-master}
\caption{Wishbone Datasheet for the CPU as Master}\label{tbl:wishbone-master}
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
I do not recommend that you connect these together through the interconnect.
I do not recommend that you connect these together through the interconnect.
Rather, the debug port of the CPU should be accessible regardless of the state
Rather, the debug port of the CPU should be accessible regardless of the state
of the master bus.
of the master bus.
 
 
You may wish to notice that neither the {\tt ERR} nor the {\tt RETRY} wires
You may wish to notice that neither the {\tt LOCK} nor the {\tt RTY} (retry)
have been implemented.  What this means is that the CPU is currently unable
wires have been connected to the CPU's master interface.  If necessary, a
to detect a bus error condition, and so may stall indefinitely (hang) should
rudimentary {\tt LOCK} may be created by tying the wire to the {\tt wb\_cyc}
it choose to access a value not on the bus, or a peripheral that is not
line.  As for the {\tt RTY}, all the CPU recognizes at this point are bus
yet properly configured.
errors---it cannot tell the difference between a temporary and a permanent bus
 
error.
 
 
\chapter{Clocks}\label{chap:clocks}
\chapter{Clocks}\label{chap:clocks}
 
 
This core is based upon the Basys--3 development board sold by Digilent.
This core is based upon the Basys--3 development board sold by Digilent.
The Basys--3 development board contains one external 100~MHz clock, which is
The Basys--3 development board contains one external 100~MHz clock, which is
Line 2381... Line 2523...
\end{center}\end{table}
\end{center}\end{table}
I hesitate to suggest that the core can run faster than 100~MHz, since I have
I hesitate to suggest that the core can run faster than 100~MHz, since I have
had struggled with various timing violations to keep it at 100~MHz.  So, for
had struggled with various timing violations to keep it at 100~MHz.  So, for
now, I will only state that it can run at 100~MHz.
now, I will only state that it can run at 100~MHz.
 
 
 
On a SPARTAN 6, the clock can run successfully at 80~MHz.
 
 
\chapter{I/O Ports}\label{chap:ioports}
\chapter{I/O Ports}\label{chap:ioports}
The I/O ports to the Zip CPU may be grouped into three categories.  The first
The I/O ports to the Zip CPU may be grouped into three categories.  The first
is that of the master wishbone used by the CPU, then the slave wishbone used
is that of the master wishbone used by the CPU, then the slave wishbone used
to command the CPU via a debugger, and then the rest.  The first two of these
to command the CPU via a debugger, and then the rest.  The first two of these
Line 2398... Line 2541...
{\tt o\_wb\_addr}  & 32 & Output & Bus address \\\hline
{\tt o\_wb\_addr}  & 32 & Output & Bus address \\\hline
{\tt o\_wb\_data}  & 32 & Output & Data on WB write\\\hline
{\tt o\_wb\_data}  & 32 & Output & Data on WB write\\\hline
{\tt i\_wb\_ack}   &  1 & Input  & Slave has completed a R/W cycle\\\hline
{\tt i\_wb\_ack}   &  1 & Input  & Slave has completed a R/W cycle\\\hline
{\tt i\_wb\_stall} &  1 & Input  & WB bus slave not ready\\\hline
{\tt i\_wb\_stall} &  1 & Input  & WB bus slave not ready\\\hline
{\tt i\_wb\_data}  & 32 & Input  & Incoming bus data\\\hline
{\tt i\_wb\_data}  & 32 & Input  & Incoming bus data\\\hline
 
{\tt i\_wb\_err}   &  1 & Input  & Bus Error indication\\\hline
\end{portlist}\caption{CPU Master Wishbone I/O Ports}\label{tbl:iowb-master}\end{center}\end{table}
\end{portlist}\caption{CPU Master Wishbone I/O Ports}\label{tbl:iowb-master}\end{center}\end{table}
and~\ref{tbl:iowb-slave} respectively.
and~\ref{tbl:iowb-slave} respectively.
\begin{table}
\begin{table}
\begin{center}\begin{portlist}
\begin{center}\begin{portlist}
{\tt i\_wb\_cyc}   &  1 & Input & Indicates an active Wishbone cycle\\\hline
{\tt i\_wb\_cyc}   &  1 & Input & Indicates an active Wishbone cycle\\\hline
Line 2419... Line 2563...
line.  These are shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:ioports}.
line.  These are shown in Tbl.~\ref{tbl:ioports}.
\begin{table}
\begin{table}
\begin{center}\begin{portlist}
\begin{center}\begin{portlist}
{\tt i\_clk} & 1 & Input & The master CPU clock \\\hline
{\tt i\_clk} & 1 & Input & The master CPU clock \\\hline
{\tt i\_rst} & 1 & Input &  Active high reset line \\\hline
{\tt i\_rst} & 1 & Input &  Active high reset line \\\hline
{\tt i\_ext\_int} & 1\ldots 6 & Input &  Incoming external interrupts \\\hline
{\tt i\_ext\_int} & 1\ldots 16 & Input &  Incoming external interrupts, actual
 
                value set by implementation parameter \\\hline
{\tt o\_ext\_int} & 1 & Output & CPU Halted interrupt \\\hline
{\tt o\_ext\_int} & 1 & Output & CPU Halted interrupt \\\hline
\end{portlist}\caption{I/O Ports}\label{tbl:ioports}\end{center}\end{table}
\end{portlist}\caption{I/O Ports}\label{tbl:ioports}\end{center}\end{table}
The clock line was discussed briefly in Chapt.~\ref{chap:clocks}.  We
The clock line was discussed briefly in Chapt.~\ref{chap:clocks}.  We
typically run it at 100~MHz.  The reset line is an active high reset.  When
typically run it at 100~MHz, although we've needed to slow it down to 80~MHz
 
for some implementations.  The reset line is an active high reset.  When
asserted, the CPU will start running again from its reset address in
asserted, the CPU will start running again from its reset address in
memory.  Further, depending upon how the CPU is configured and specifically on
memory.  Further, depending upon how the CPU is configured and specifically
the {\tt START\_HALTED} parameter, it may or may not start running
based upon how the {\tt START\_HALTED} parameter is set, the CPU may or may
automatically.  The {\tt i\_ext\_int} line is for an external interrupt.  This
not start running automatically following a reset.  The {\tt i\_ext\_int}
line may be as wide as 6~external interrupts, depending upon the setting of
line is for an external interrupt.  This line may actually be as wide as
the {\tt EXTERNAL\_INTERRUPTS} line.  As currently configured, the ZipSystem
16~external interrupts, depending upon the setting of
only supports one such interrupt line by default.  For us, this line is the
the {\tt EXTERNAL\_INTERRUPTS} parameter.  Finally, the Zip System produces one
output of another interrupt controller, but that's a board specific setup
external interrupt whenever the entire CPU halts to wait for the debugger.
detail.  Finally, the Zip System produces one external interrupt whenever
 
the CPU halts to wait for the debugger.
 
 
 
\chapter{Initial Assessment}\label{chap:assessment}
\chapter{Initial Assessment}\label{chap:assessment}
 
 
Having now worked with the Zip CPU for a while, it is worth offering an
Having now worked with the Zip CPU for a while, it is worth offering an
honest assessment of how well it works and how well it was designed. At the
honest assessment of how well it works and how well it was designed. At the
end of this assessment, I will propose some changes that may take place in a
end of this assessment, I will propose some changes that may take place in a
later version of this Zip CPU to make it better.
later version of this Zip CPU to make it better.
 
 
\section{The Good}
\section{The Good}
\begin{itemize}
\begin{itemize}
\item The Zip CPU is light weight and fully featured as it exists today. For
\item The Zip CPU can be configured to be relatively light weight and fully
        anyone who wishes to build a general purpose CPU and then to
        featured as it exists today. For anyone who wishes to build a general
        experiment with building and adding particular features, the Zip CPU
        purpose CPU and then to experiment with building and adding particular
        makes a good starting point--it is fairly simple. Modifications should
        features, the Zip CPU makes a good starting point--it is fairly simple.
        be simple enough.
        Modifications should be simple enough.  Indeed, a non--pipelined
 
        version of the bare ZipBones (with no peripherals) has been built that
 
        only uses 1.1k~LUTs.  When using pipelining, the full cache, and all
 
        of the peripherals, the ZipSystem can top 5~k LUTs.  Where it fits
 
        in between is a function of your needs.
\item The Zip CPU was designed to be an implementable soft core that could be
\item The Zip CPU was designed to be an implementable soft core that could be
        placed within an FPGA, controlling actions internal to the FPGA. It
        placed within an FPGA, controlling actions internal to the FPGA. It
        fits this role rather nicely. It does not fit the role of a system on
        fits this role rather nicely. It does not fit the role of a system on
        a chip very well, but then it was never intended to be a system on a
        a chip very well, but then it was never intended to be a system on a
        chip but rather a system within a chip.
        chip but rather a system within a chip.
Line 2486... Line 2634...
        cycle per access again.
        cycle per access again.
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
 
 
\section{The Not so Good}
\section{The Not so Good}
\begin{itemize}
\begin{itemize}
\item While one of the stated goals was to use a small amount of logic,
 
        3k~LUTs isn't that impressively small. Indeed, it's really much
 
        too expensive when compared against other 8 and 16-bit CPUs that have
 
        less than 1k LUTs.
 
 
 
        Still, \ldots it's not bad, it's just not astonishingly good.
 
 
 
\item The fact that the instruction width equals the bus width means that the
 
        instruction fetch cycle will always be interfering with any load or
 
        store memory operation, with the only exception being if the
 
        instruction is already in the cache.
 
 
 
        This could be fixed in one of three ways: the instruction set
 
        architecture could be modified to handle Very Long Instruction Words
 
        (VLIW) so that each 32--bit word would encode two or more instructions,
 
        the instruction fetch bus width could be increased from 32--bits to
 
        64--bits or more, or the instruction bus could be separated from the
 
        data bus.  Any and all of these approaches would increase the overall
 
        LUT count.
 
 
 
\item The (non-existant) floating point unit was an after-thought, isn't even
 
        built as a potential option, and most likely won't support the full
 
        IEEE standard set of FPU instructions--even for single point precision.
 
        This (non-existant) capability would benefit the most from an
 
        out-of-order execution capability, which the Zip CPU does not have.
 
 
 
        Still, sharing FPU registers with the main register set was a good
 
        idea and worth preserving, as it simplifies context swapping.
 
 
 
        Perhaps this really isn't a problem, but rather a feature.  By not
 
        implementing FPU instructions, the Zip CPU maintains a lower LUT count
 
        than it would have if it did implement these instructions.
 
 
 
\item The CPU has no character support. This is both good and bad.
\item The CPU has no character support. This is both good and bad.
        Realistically, the CPU works just fine without it. Characters can be
        Realistically, the CPU works just fine without it. Characters can be
        supported as subsets of 32-bit words without any problem. Practically,
        supported as subsets of 32-bit words without any problem. Practically,
        though, it will make compiling non-Zip CPU code difficult--especially
        though, it will make compiling non-Zip CPU code difficult--especially
        anything that assumes sizeof(int)=4*sizeof(char), or that tries to
        anything that assumes sizeof(int)=4*sizeof(char), or that tries to
Line 2551... Line 2666...
        takes the Zip CPU more instructions to do many of the same operations.
        takes the Zip CPU more instructions to do many of the same operations.
        The good part of this is that it gives the Zip CPU a greater amount of
        The good part of this is that it gives the Zip CPU a greater amount of
        flexibility in its immediate operand mode, although that increased
        flexibility in its immediate operand mode, although that increased
        flexibility isn't necessarily as valuable as one might like.
        flexibility isn't necessarily as valuable as one might like.
 
 
\item The Zip CPU does not currently detect and trap on either illegal
 
        instructions or bus errors.  Attempts to access non--existent
 
        memory quietly return erroneous results, rather than halting the
 
        process (user mode) or halting or resetting the CPU (supervisor mode).
 
 
 
\item The Zip CPU doesn't support out of order execution. I suppose it could
\item The Zip CPU doesn't support out of order execution. I suppose it could
        be modified to do so, but then it would no longer be the ``simple''
        be modified to do so, but then it would no longer be the ``simple''
        and low LUT count CPU it was designed to be. The two primary results
        and low LUT count CPU it was designed to be. The two primary results
        are that 1) loads may unnecessarily stall the CPU, even if other
        are that 1) loads may unnecessarily stall the CPU, even if other
        things could be done while waiting for the load to complete, 2)
        things could be done while waiting for the load to complete, 2)
Line 2581... Line 2691...
\item While the Zip CPU has its own assembler, it has no linker and does not
\item While the Zip CPU has its own assembler, it has no linker and does not
        (yet) support a compiler. The standard C library is an even longer
        (yet) support a compiler. The standard C library is an even longer
        shot. My dream of having binutils and gcc support has not been
        shot. My dream of having binutils and gcc support has not been
        realized and at this rate may not be realized. (I've been intimidated
        realized and at this rate may not be realized. (I've been intimidated
        by the challenge everytime I've looked through those codes.)
        by the challenge everytime I've looked through those codes.)
 
 
\iffalse
 
\item While the Wishbone Bus (B4) supports a pipelined mode with single cycle
 
        execution, the Zip CPU is unable to exploit this parallelism. Instead,
 
        apart from the DMA and the pipelined prefetch, all loads and stores
 
        are single wishbone bus operations requiring a minimum of 3 clocks.
 
        (In practice, this has turned into 7-clocks.)
 
        % Addressed, 20150929
 
 
 
\item There is no control over whether or not an instruction sets the
 
        condition codes--certain instructions always set the condition codes,
 
        other instructions never set them. This effectively limits conditional
 
        instructions to a single instruction only (with two or more
 
        instructions as an exception), as the first instruction that sets
 
        condition codes will break the condition code chain.
 
 
 
        {\em (A proposed change below address this.)}
 
 
 
\item Using the CC register as a trap address was a bad idea--it limits the CC
 
        registers ability to be used in future expansion, such as by adding
 
        exception indication flags: bus error, floating point exception, etc.
 
 
 
        {\em (This can be changed by a different O/S implementation of the trap
 
        instruction.)}
 
\item The current implementation suffers from too many stalls on any
 
        branch--even if the branch is known early on.
 
 
 
        {\em (This is addressed in proposals below.)}
 
        % Addressed, 20150918
 
 
 
\item In a similar fashion, a switch to interrupt context forces the pipeline
 
        to be cleared, whereas it might make more sense to just continue
 
        executing the instructions already in the pipeline while the prefetch
 
        stage is working on switching to the interrupt context.
 
 
 
        {\em (Also addressed in proposals below.)}
 
        % This should happen so rarely that it is not really a problem
 
\fi
 
 
 
\end{itemize}
\end{itemize}
 
 
\section{The Next Generation}
\section{The Next Generation}
This section could also be labeled as my ``To do'' list.
This section could also be labeled as my ``To do'' list.  Today's list is
 
much different than it was for the last version of this document, as much of
Given the feedback listed above, perhaps its time to consider what changes could be made to improve the Zip CPU in the future. I offer the following as proposals:
the prior to do list (such as VLIW instructions, and a more traditional
 
instruction cache) has now been implemented.  The only things really and
\begin{itemize}
truly waiting on my list today are assembler support for the VLIW instruction
\item {\bf Remove the low LUT goal.} It wasn't really achieved, and the
set, linker and compiler support.
        proposals below will only increase the amount of logic the Zip CPU
 
        requires.  While I expect that the Zip CPU will always be somewhat
 
        of a light weight, it will never be the smallest kid on the block.
 
 
 
        I'm actually struggling with this idea.  The whole goal of the Zip
 
        CPU was to be light weight.  Wouldn't it make more sense to create and
 
        maintain options whereby it would remain lightweight?  For example, if
 
        the process accounting registers are anything but light weight, why
 
        keep them?  Why not instead make some compile flags that just turn them
 
        off, keeping the CPU lightweight?  The same holds for the prefetch
 
        cache.
 
 
 
\item The `{\tt .V}' condition was never used in any code other than my test
 
        code.  Suggest changing it to a `{\tt .LE}' condition, which seems
 
        to be more useful.
 
 
 
\item {\bf Consider a more traditional Instruction Cache.}  The current
 
        pipelined instruction cache just reads a window of memory into
 
        its cache.  If the CPU leaves that window, the entire cache is
 
        invalidated.  A more traditional cache, however, might allow
 
        common subroutines to stay within the cache without invalidating the
 
        entire cache structure.
 
 
 
\iffalse
 
\item {\bf Adjust the Zip CPU so that conditional instructions do not set
 
        flags}, although they may explicitly set condition codes if writing
 
        to the CC register.
 
 
 
        This is a simple change to the core, and may show up in new releases.
 
        % Fixed, 20150918
 
 
 
\item Add in an {\bf unpredictable branch delay slot}, so that on any branch
 
        the delay slot may or may not be executed before the branch.
 
        Instructions that do not depend upon the branch, and that should be
 
        executed were the branch not taken, could be placed into the delay
 
        slot. Thus, if the branch isn't taken, we wouldn't suffer the stall,
 
        whereas it wouldn't affect the timing of the branch if taken. It would
 
        just do something irrelevant.
 
 
 
        % Changes made, 20150918, make this option no longer relevant
 
 
 
\item {\bf Re-engineer Branch Processing.}  There's no reason why a {\tt BRA}
 
        instruction should create five stall cycles.  The decode stage, plus
 
        the prefetch engine, should be able to drop this number of stalls via
 
        better branch handling.
 
 
 
        Indeed, this could turn into a simple means of branch prediction:
 
        if {\tt BRA} suffered a single stall only, whereas {\tt BRA.C}
 
        suffered five stalls, then {\tt BRA.!C} followed by {\tt BRA} would
 
        be faster than a {\tt BRA.C} instruction.  This would then allow a
 
        compiler to do explicit branch optimizations.
 
 
 
        Of course, longer branches using {\tt ADD X,PC} would still not be
 
        optimized.
 
 
 
        % DONE: 20150918 -- to include the ADD X,PC instructions
 
 
 
\item {\bf Request bus access for Load/Store two cycles earlier.}  The problem
 
        here is the contention for the bus between the memory unit and the
 
        prefetch unit.  Currently, the memory unit must ask the prefetch
 
        unit to release the bus if it is in the middle of a bus cycle.  At this
 
        point, the prefetch drops the {\tt STB} line on the next clock and must
 
        then wait for the last {\tt ACK} before releasing the bus.  If the
 
        request takes one clock, dropping the strobe line the next, waiting
 
        for an acknowledgement takes another, and then the bus must be idle
 
        for one cycle before starting again, these extra cycles add up.
 
        It should be possible to tell the prefetch stage to give up the bus
 
        as soon as the decoder knows the instruction will need the bus.
 
        Indeed, if done in the decode stage, this might drop the seven cycle
 
        access down by two cycles.
 
        % FIXED: 20150918
 
 
 
\item {\bf Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW).}  Now, to speed up operation, I
 
        propose that the Zip CPU instruction set be modified towards a Very
 
        Long Instruction Word (VLIW) implementation. In this implementation,
 
        an instruction word may contain either one or two separate
 
        instructions. The first instruction would take up the high order bits,
 
        the second optional instruction the lower 16-bits. Further, I propose
 
        that any of the ALU instructions (SUB through LSR) automatically have
 
        a second instruction whenever their operand `B' is a register, and use
 
        the full 20-bit immediate if not. This will effectively eliminate the
 
        register plus immediate mode for all of these instructions.
 
 
 
        This is the minimal required change to increase the number of
 
        instructions per clock cycle. Other changes would need to take place
 
        as well to support this. These include:
 
        \begin{itemize}
 
        \item Instruction words containing two instructions would take two
 
                clocks to complete, while requiring only a single cycle
 
                instruction fetch.
 
        \item Instructions preceded by a label in the asseembler must always
 
                start in the high order word.
 
        \item VLIW's, once started, must always execute to completion. The
 
                upper word may set the PC, the lower word may not. Regardless
 
                of whether the upper word sets the PC, the lower word must
 
                still be guaranteed to complete before the PC changes. On any
 
                switch to (or from) interrupt context, both instructions must
 
                complete or none of the instructions in the word shall
 
                complete prior to the switch.
 
        \item STEP commands and BREAK instructions will only take place after
 
                the entire word is executed.
 
        \end{itemize}
 
 
 
        If done well, the assembler should be able to handle these changes
 
        with the biggest impacts to the user being increased performance and
 
        a loss of the register plus immediate ALU modes. (These weren't really
 
        relevant for the XOR, OR, AND, etc. operations anyway.) Machine code
 
        compatibility will not be maintained.
 
 
 
        A proposed secondary instruction set might consist of: a four bit
 
        operand (any of the prior instructions would be supported, with some
 
        exceptions such as moves to and from user registers while in
 
        supervisor mode not being supported), a 4-bit register result (PC not
 
        allowed), a 3-bit conditional (identical to the conditional for the
 
        upper word), a single bit for whether or not an immediate is present
 
        or not, followed by either a 4-bit register or a 4-bit signed
 
        immediate. The multiply instruction would steal the immediate flag to
 
        be used as a sign indication, forcing both operands to be registers
 
        without any immediate offsets.
 
 
 
        {\em Initial conversion of several library functions to this secondary
 
        instruction set has demonstrated little to no gain.   The problem was
 
        that the new instruction set was made by joining a rarely used
 
        instruction (ALU with register and not immediate) with a more common
 
        instruction.  The utility was then limited by the utility of the rare
 
        instrction, which limited the impact of the entire approach.  }
 
\else
 
\item {\bf Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW).}  The goal here would be to
 
        create a new instruction set whereby two instructions would be encoded
 
        in each 32--bit word.  While this may speed up
 
        CPU operation, it would necessitate an instruction redesign.
 
\fi
 
 
 
\end{itemize}
 
 
 
 
Stay tuned, these are likely to be coming next.
 
 
% Appendices
% Appendices
% Index
% Index
\end{document}
\end{document}
 
 

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